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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, genetic and biomarker data of the study population

From: Addition of the Aβ42/40 ratio to the cerebrospinal fluid biomarker profile increases the predictive value for underlying Alzheimer’s disease dementia in mild cognitive impairment

  Controls (n = 66) AD-dementia(n = 168) MCI total(n = 197) MCI-St(n = 74) MCI-AD(n = 70)
Gender (M/F) 27/39 56/112 68/127 25/49 26/44
Age (years) 58.8 ± 11.9 68.1 ± 8.8*** 67.1 ± 9.4*** 65.2 ± 9.3* 71.0 ± 8.0***,§§
Age onset (years)   64.6 ± 8.7 64.2 ± 9.3 60.5 ± 9.4 68.8 ± 7.7γ,§§§
Education (years)   5.5 ± 4.0 6.0 ± 3.8 5.7 ± 3.6 5.8 ± 3.9
MMSE 28.4±1.8 17.2 ± 5.9*** 25.9 ± 4.0***,γγγ 26.5 ± 4.9***,γγγ 25.1 ± 3.3***,γγγ,§
MoCA   10.5 ± 5.1 17.7 ± 5.6γγγ 19.9 ± 4.9γγγ 15.5 ± 5.3γγ,§§§
ADAS-Cog   26.0 ± 12.3 11.8 ± 6.1γγγ 9.0 ± 4.3γγγ 14.7 ± 6.3γγγ,§§§
APOE-ε4 (%)   46% 42% 28% 60%§§§
Aβ42 (pg/ml) 928 ± 435 455 ± 225*** 689 ± 322***,γγγ 785 ± 309*,γγγ 476 ± 180***,§§§
Aβ40 (pg/ml) 10,055 ± 4314 9229 ± 3668 11,097 ± 4635γγγ 10,916 ± 4379γγ 10,157 ± 3381
Aβ42/40 ratio 0.100 ± 0.034 0.055 ± 0.029*** 0.070 ± 0.039***,γγγ 0.083 ± 0.046*,γγγ 0.050 ± 0.020***,§§§
t-Tau (pg/ml) 196 ± 95 543 ± 363*** 374 ± 269***,γγγ 253 ± 151γγγ 511 ± 307***,§§§
p-Tau (pg/ml) 33 ± 15 64 ± 37*** 50 ± 28**,γγγ 38 ± 19γγγ 62 ± 30***,§§§
t-Tau/Aβ42 0.22 ± 0.11 1.53 ± 1.36*** 0.74 ± 0.73***,γγγ 0.41 ± 0.39γγγ 1.18 ± 0.85***,§§§
Aβ42/p-Tau 32.0 ± 15.3 9.3 ± 8.2*** 18.6 ± 14.2***,γγγ 25.7 ± 16.3γγγ 9.7 ± 6.6***,§§§
  1. Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation, except for APOE expressed as percentage of ε4 carriers
  2. MMSE and MoCA, higher scores correspond to better performance; ADAS-Cog, lower scores correspond to better performance. For MMSE and CSF biomarkers, data were adjusted for age
  3. AD Alzheimer’s disease, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MCI-St stable mild cognitive impairment, MCI-AD mild cognitive impairment patients who progress to Alzheimer’s disease, M male, F female, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, ADAS-Cog Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale—Cognitive, APOE Apolipoprotein E, Aβ42 42-aminoacid isoform of amyloid beta, Aβ40 40-aminoacid isoform of amyloid beta, t-Tau total Tau protein, p-Tau hyperphosphorylated Tau protein
  4. *p < 0.05 vs controls
  5. **p < 0.01 vs controls
  6. ***p < 0.001 vs controls
  7. γp < 0.05 vs AD-dementia
  8. γγp < 0.01 vs AD-dementia
  9. γγγp < 0.001 vs AD-dementia
  10. §p < 0.05 vs MCI-St
  11. §§p < 0.01 vs MCI-St
  12. §§§p < 0.001 vs MCI-St