Diagnostic groups

Biomarker

AUC (95% CI)

Specificity (%)*


AD vs HC

AβX42/X40 ratio

0.95 (0.92–0.99)

93%

Aβ1–42 (pg/mL)

0.93 (0.88–0.98)

90%

Ttau/Aβ1–42 ratio

0.93 (0.89–0.97)

83%

Ttau (pg/mL)

0.81 (0.73–0.90)

53%

Ptau (pg/L)

0.80 (0.71–0.88)

54%

All the above

0.91 (0.84–0.95)

88%

AD vs DLB

Ptau (pg/L)

0.79 (0.68–0.90)

50%

Ttau (pg/mL)

0.78 (0.67–0.88)

50%

Ttau/Aβ1–42 ratio

0.77 (0.66–0.88)

40%

AβX42/X40 ratio

0.73 (0.59–0.88)

47%

APPβ (ng/mL)

0.73 (0.58–0.87)

44%

All the above

0.75 (0.54–0.88)

50%

AD vs bvFTD

Ttau/Aβ1–42 ratio

0.89 (0.85–0.94)

70%

AβX42/X40 ratio

0.86 (0.77–0.94)

85%

Ttau (pg/mL)

0.83 (0.76–0.90)

64%

Aβ1–42 (pg/mL)

0.78 (0.70–0.87)

60%

Ptau (pg/L)

0.78 (0.70–0.86)

46%

All the above

0.86 (0.78–0.92)

81%

AD vs PNFA^{a}

NFL (ng/L)

0.84 (0.76–0.93)

50%

Ttau/Aβ1–42 ratio

0.67 (0.54–0.80)

24%

Aβ1–42 (pg/mL)

0.65 (0.50–0.80)

35%

All the above

0.60 (0.16–0.76)

42%

AD vs SD^{b}

AβX42/X40 ratio

0.92 (0.86–0.97)

100%

Ttau/Aβ1–42 ratio

0.91 (0.86–0.96)

86%

Aβ1–42 (pg/mL)

0.91 (0.84–0.98)

86%

NFL (ng/L)

0.87 (0.78–0.96)

67%

Ptau (pg/L)

0.85 (0.75–0.94)

29%

AD vs nonAD dementia

Ttau/Aβ1–42 ratio

0.82 (0.77–0.88)

56%

AβX42/X40 ratio

0.79 (0.72–0.87)

68%

Ttau (pg/mL)

0.77 (0.71–0.83)

51%

Ptau (pg/L)

0.76 (0.70–0.83)

41%

Aβ1–42 (pg/mL)

0.73 (0.67–0.80)

48%

All the above

0.81 (0.73–0.85)

68%

AD vs all others (including HC)

Ttau/Aβ1–42 ratio

0.85 (0.80–0.90)

63%

AβX42/X40 ratio

0.84 (0.79–0.90)

76%

Ttau (pg/mL)

0.78 (0.73–0.84)

51%

Aβ1–42 (pg/mL)

0.78 (0.73–0.84)

59%

Ptau (pg/L)

0.77 (0.71–0.83)

45%

All the above

0.84 (0.79–0.90)

75%

 Aβ amyloid beta, AD Alzheimer’s disease, APP amyloid precursor protein, AUC area under the curve, bvFTD behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, CI confidence interval, DLB dementia with Lewy bodies, HC healthy controls, PNFA progressive nonfluent aphasia, SD Semantic dementia, NFL neurofilament light chain, Ptau phosphorylated tau, Ttau total tau
 ^{a}Only three biomarkers were found to be significant, see Table 3
 ^{b}There is no joint model for AD vs SD because n < 10 for SD