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Table 1 Test cohort demographic and biomarker data for all diagnostic groups

From: Cerebrospinal fluid in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: clinical utility of an extended panel of biomarkers in a specialist cognitive clinic

  AD (n = 156) DLB (n = 20) bvFTD (n = 45) PNFA (n = 17) SD (n = 7) Controls (n = 30)
Age at LP (years) 62.5 (57–68) 70.0 (68–75) 61.0 (57–66) 65.0 (61–69) 62.0 (57–68) 63.5 (50–67)
% Male 42.3 75.0 60.0 47.1 71.4 46.7
Symptom onset to LP (months) 36 (24–60) (n = 154) 36 (18.5–48) 36 (24–60) (n = 44) 36 (24–48) 60 (18–72) N/A
MMSE 22 (17–25) (n = 142) 22 (18–28) (n = 15) 24 (18–27) (n = 42) 25 (9.5–28) (n = 8) 27 (16–27) (n = 7) 30 (30–30)
Duration of follow-up (months) 12 (6–24) 11 (4–29.5) 11 (6–23) 12 (4–24) 23 (11–43) N/A
Aβ1–42 (pg/mL) 310.5 (218.0–451.5) 357.5 (327.0–490.0) 638.0 (396.0–871.0) 440.0 (308.0–696.0) 767.0 (633.0–859.0) 953.0 (771.0–1199.0)
T-tau (pg/mL) 674.5 (430.0–973.5) 338.5 (185.0–489.0) 289.0 (187.0–389.0) 501.0 (367.0–744.0) 319.0 (229.0–458.0) 303.5 (189.0–402.0)
T-tau/Aβ1–42 ratio 2.3 (1.2–3.7) (n = 154) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.4 (0.3–0.7) (n = 44) 1.1 (0.7–2.1) 0.5 (0.3–0.6) 0.3 (0.2–0.4)
P-tau-181 (pg/L) 86.4 (59.4–111.8) (n = 119) 47.1 (38.1–64.3) (n = 16) 49.2 (37.0–64.0) (n = 39) 62.5 (49.8–100.1) (n = 13) 50.9 (25.5–58.6) 47.8 (39.3–65.4) (n = 26)
NFL (ng/L) 1191.5 (857.6–1584.0) (n = 119) 929.6 (839.9–1650.1) (n = 17) 1788.4 (839.9–3334.6) (n = 38) 1974.9 (1627.7–3490.5) (n = 12) 2400.0 (1687.5–3584.7) (n = 6) 649.0 (515.9–849.5)
YKL-40 (ng/mL) 163 (127–194)(n = 114) 158 (134–186)(n = 16) 163 (135–244)(n = 35) 192 (140–207)(n = 10) 179 (132–256)(n = 5) 111 (93–164)(n = 29)
AβX-38 (ng/L) 1462.0 (1101.4–2025.5) (n = 117) 1214.2 (840.1–1529.2) (n = 15) 1306.0 (1106.2–1658.8) (n = 34) 1653.8 (1251.7–2046.7) (n = 12) 1751.4 (1442.0–1777.0) (n = 5) 2183 (1980.8–3058.6) (n = 29)
AβX-40 (ng/L) 3635.1 (2911.0–4584.4) (n = 117) 2916.1 (2235.6–3718.2) (n = 15) 3439.5 (2714.7–4274.9) (n = 34) 3900.6 (3175.7–4355.6) (n = 12) 3965.4 (3702.2–4537.6) (n = 5) 5478.3 (4888.3–7615.2) (n = 29)
AβX-42 (ng/L) 164.6 (109.1–231.6) (n = 117) 182.1 (170.9–281.7) (n = 15) 284.5 (195.2–369.4) (n = 34) 183.0 (117.4–343.6) (n = 12) 346.0 (309.9–372.1) (n = 5) 592.2 (469.7–749.8) (n = 29)
AβX-42/X-40 ratio 0.043 (0.036–0.053) (n = 117) 0.055 (0.047–0.089) (n = 15) 0.083 (0.072–0.094) (n = 34) 0.052 (0.040–0.087) (n = 12) 0.087 (0.085–0.093) (n = 5) 0.107 (0.092–0.114) (n = 29)
APPα (ng/mL) 348.8 (254.9–532.7) (n = 119) 218.6 (175.8–368.1) (n = 16) 270.7 (164.9–328.7) (n = 37) 374.3 (316.1–467.3) (n = 12) 379.5 (281.7–479.8) (n = 5) 426.4 (322.0–654.5)
APPβ (ng/mL) 202.2 (151.2–325.8) (n = 119) 138.0 (115.0–175.2) (n = 16) 128.0 (107.4–187.1) (n = 37) 220.3 (178.8–298.1) (n = 12) 181.9 (171.4–236.4) (n = 5) 258.6 (182.0–372.0)
  1. Median and interquartile ranges are shown
  2. Where data were missing, the number of subjects for which data were available is indicated within parentheses
  3. amyloid beta, AD Alzheimer’s disease, APP amyloid precursor protein, bvFTD behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, DLB dementia with Lewy bodies, LP lumbar puncture, PNFA progressive non-fluent aphasia, SD Semantic dementia, MMSE mini-mental state examination, NFL neurofilament light chain, P-tau phosphorylated tau, T-tau total tau