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Table 1 Comparison of mean engagement, mood, and sleep levels during group activities vs during control observations

From: The impact of group activities and their content on persons with dementia attending them

Variable Rater Group activity Control   t df p (two-tailed) Effect size
  Mean SD Mean SD
'Engagement' TR 3.55 1.41 2.72 1.96 4.84 92 0.000 0.71
Observer 3.73 1.35 3.31 1.7 3.43 96 0.001 0.49
Positive mood TR 2.48 1.07 1.76 1.28 6.04 91 0.000 0.89
Observer 1.52 1.07 1.24 1.29 3.12 96 0.002 0.45
Asleep TR 1.14 1.62 1.87 2.15 −3.87 89 0.000 −0.58
Observer 1.19 1.63 1.48 2.09 −1.94 94 0.056 −0.28
  1. SD standard deviation, df degrees of freedom, TR therapeutic recreation