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Table 1 Descriptive data of the main clinical cohorts

From: Characterization and clinical use of inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid protein markers in Alzheimer’s disease

  Feature (median ± SD, minimum–maximum, coverage)
  Nondemented (ND) Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Alzheimer’s disease (AD) p Value (significant cohort-wise comparisons)
No. of subjects 85 130 116
Age, years 67 ± 11 71 ± 8 74 ± 8 1 × 10E −10
43–81; 100% 48–85; 100% 50–88; 100% (ND vs. MCI, AD)
Sex, % male 65 65 45 χ 2 = 2 × 10E −3
(AD vs. ND, MCI)
Storage time, months 27 ± 21 36 ± 23 22 ± 19 7 × 10E −5
0.3–95.0; 100% 4.0–91.0; 100% 4.0–94.0; 100% (MCI vs. ND, AD)
42, pg/ml 552 ± 315 432 ± 302 319 ± 191 1 × 10E −9
138–1653; 100% 87–1326; 100% 91–1505; 100% (All cohorts)
42/Aβ40 ratio 0.10 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.04 0.05 ± 0.02 1 × 10E −23
0.02–0.25; 100% 0.02–0.23; 100% 0.03–0.15; 100% (All cohorts)
t-tau, pg/ml 289 ± 228 419 ± 290 680 ± 344 3 × 10E −14
36–1210; 100% 71–1528; 100% 126–2157; 100% (All cohorts)
p-tau-181, pg/ml 43 ± 25 59 ± 30 76 ± 36 1 × 10E −12
16–157; 100% 18–158; 100% 23–248; 100% (All cohorts)
42/p-tau-181 ratio 17.0 ± 9.2 9.7 ± 9.1 4.5 ± 3.8 6 × 10E −27
2.0–42.8; 100% 1.5–48.8; 100% 1.3–25.2; 100% (All cohorts)
CSF protein, mg/L 488 ± 167 458 ± 148 453 ± 144 0.423
257–999; 93% 248–1090; 98% 245–1055; 99%
CSF albumin, mg/L 268 ± 137 256 ± 116 260 ± 116 0.485
103–688; 88% 100–724; 98% 118–803; 98%
CSF IgG, mg/L 31 ± 17 28 ± 13 28 ± 16 0.263
8–94; 88% 9–108; 98% 11–128; 98%
CSF leukocytes, cells/μl 1 ± 2 1 ± 1 1 ± 1 0.942
0–11; 93% 0–7; 98% 0–7; 99%
MMSE score 29 ± 1 26 ± 3 21 ± 4 1 × 10E −48
27–30; 73% 18–30; 91% 6–29; 96% (All cohorts)
Education, years 15 ± 2 14 ± 4 13 ± 4 0.129
11–18; 18% 8–22; 82% 8–22; 72%
Word list learning 20 ± 3 16 ± 4 13 ± 4 1 × 10E −11
16–23; 18% 5–27; 81% 3–19; 69% (All cohorts)
Word list recall 6 ± 1 4 ± 2 2 ± 2 6 × 10E −16
4–9; 18% 0–10; 78% 0–7; 60% (All cohorts)
Word list discrimination, % 100 ± 3 95 ± 15 85 ± 21 7 × 10E −6
90–100; 18% 0–100; 81% 0–100; 69% (All cohorts)
Figure recall 8 ± 2 5 ± 3 3 ± 3 4 × 10E −10
2–11; 16% 0–11; 81% 0–10; 60% (All cohorts)
TMT A 52 ± 27 57 ± 33 84 ± 46 4 × 10E −3
20–119; 16% 26–180; 80% 29–180; 69% (AD vs. ND, MCI)
TMT B 115 ± 50 166 ± 80 300 ± 71 5 × 10E −11
53–245; 16% 52–300; 75% 76–300; 60% (All cohorts)
Semantic fluency 22 ± 7 16 ± 6 12 ± 5 2 × 10E −10
14–39; 18% 5–34; 81% 3–26; 72% (All cohorts)
Phonetic fluency 12 ± 4 10 ± 5 9 ± 4 7 × 10E −3
7–19; 16% 1–26; 79% 2–22; 70% (MCI vs. AD)
FCSRT free 32 ± 8 19 ± 8 9 ± 8 2 × 10E −12
14–40; 14% 0–40; 63% 0–33; 42% (All cohorts)
FCSRT summary score 48 ± 3 47 ± 8 36 ± 15 6 × 10E −10
45–57; 14% 0–48; 63% 2–48; 42% (AD vs. ND, MCI)
  1. Boldface values highlight statistically significant results
  2. Abbreviations: Aβ 40 β-Amyloid 1–40, 42 β-Amyloid 1–42, AD Alzheimer’s disease, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, FCSRT Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, IgG Immunoglobulin G, MCI Mild cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, ND Nondemented, p-tau-181 Tau phosphorylated at position 181, TMT Trail Making Test, t-tau Total tau