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Table 3 Cox proportional hazards models used to evaluate influence of baseline characteristics and medical history on survival

From: Disease-related determinants are associated with mortality in dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease

  Model 1 unadjusted Model 2 adjusted for age and sex Model 3: model 2 plus MMSE and duration of complaints
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p Value HR (95% CI) p Value
Demographics
 Male sexa 1.57 (1.20–2.07) 0.001 1.60 (1.22–2.11) 0.001 1.79 (1.35–2.37) 0.000
 Age 1.27 (1.11–1.46) 0.001 1.29 (1.12–1.48) 0.000 1.33 (1.15–1.53) 0.000
 Years of education 0.99 (0.86–1.13) 0.844 0.97 (0.84–1.11) 0.636 1.0 (0.90–11.9) 0.671
 Years of complaints 0.88 (0.76–1.03) 0.107 0.88 (0.76–1.03) 0.103 0.87 (0.74–1.01) 0.060
APOE ε4 carriera 0.79 (0.59–1.06) 0.114 0.81 (0.61–1.09) 0.163 0.81 (0.60–1.09) 0.170
 Activities of daily living (DAD)b 1.13 (0.97–1.31) 0.124 1.11 (0.95–1.29) 0.204 1.09 (0.94–1.26) 0.278
Medical history
 Smoking presenta 1.18 (0.89–1.55) 0.250 1.09 (0.82–1.45) 0.541 1.12 (0.85–1.49) 0.419
 Hypertension presenta 1.24 (0.94–1.64) 0.130 1.11 (0.83–1.49) 0.467 1.10 (0.82–1.47) 0.528
 Hypercholesterolemia presenta 0.86 (0.62–1.19) 0.861 0.73 (0.52–1.01) 0.059 0.75 (0.54–1.05) 0.091
 Diabetes mellitus presenta 0.72 (0.43–1.22) 0.228 0.62 (0.37–1.06) 0.079 0.65 (0.40–1.05) 0.108
 Cardiovascular disease presenta 1.35 (0.99–1.84) 0.060 1.07 (0.77–1.48) 0.700 1.09 (0.78–1.51) 0.625
 No. of medications 1.17 (1.03–1.33) 0.017 1.08 (0.95–1.24) 0.251 1.11 (0.97–1.28) 0.125
  1. Abbreviations: APOE Apolipoprotein E, DAD Disability Assessment for Dementia, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination
  2. Data are presented as HR (95% CI) using pooled data of 15 imputations per SD increase for continuous variables or for the presence of the dichotomous variable for mortality
  3. a Dichotomous variable
  4. b Because a lower score indicates worse performance, these scores were inverted