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Table 3 Demographics, MoCA, and VCAT scores for cognitively impaired participants based on language classifications

From: A novel language-neutral Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT): validation in four Southeast Asian countries

  Writing system classification
Alphabetic (N = 90) Logographic (N = 30) p value (univariate) p value (GLM)* Indo-European (N = 35) Sino-Tibetan (N = 27) Austronesian (N = 55) p value (univariate) p value (GLM)**
Age
 Mean (SD) 68.78 (9.54) 71.17 (9.37) 0.225   73.69 (7.90) 70.26 (9.36) 65.65 (9.22) < 0.001  
Years of education
 Mean (SD) 12.06 (3.49) 9.47 (4.22) 0.000   11.82 (3.23) 9.26 (4.26) 12.21 (3.67) 0.001  
Gender
 Male (%) 45 (50.0) 15 (50.0) 0.583   16 (45.7) 14 (51.9) 29 (52.7) 0.852  
Race, N (%)
 Chinese 27 (30.0) 30 (100.0)    27 (77.1) 27 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   
 Malay 39 (43.3) 0 (0.0)    1 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 38 (69.1)   
 Indian 5 (5.6) 0 (0.0)    5 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   
 Filipinos and others 19 (21.1) 0 (0.0) 0.000   2 (5.7) 0 (0.0) 17 (30.9) < 0.001  
Employment, N (%)
 Unemployed 5 (5.6) 4 (13.3)    2 (5.7) 4 (14.8) 3 (5.5)   
 Employed 25 (27.8) 1 (3.3)    3 (8.6) 1 (3.7) 22 (40.0)   
 Retired 60 (66.7) 25 (83.3) 0.012   30 (85.7) 22 (81.5) 30 (54.5) 0.001  
MoCA
 Mean (SD) 15.98 (5.98) 18.43 (4.61) 0.064 0.306 18.86 (4.85) 18.48 (4.69) 14.15 (5.94) < 0.001 0.002a,b,c
VCAT memory
 Mean (SD) 5.96 (3.39) 5.73 (3.46) 0.738 0.927 6.11 (3.39) 5.63 (3.42) 5.85 (3.41) 0.823 0.756
VCAT language
 Mean (SD) 3.06 (1.12) 3.07 (1.20) 0.914 0.395 3.17 (0.99) 3.04 (1.22) 2.98 (1.19) 0.863 0.210
VCAT visuospatial
 Mean (SD) 1.82 (0.80) 2.20 (0.41) 0.022 0.004 1.77 (0.84) 2.22 (0.42) 1.85 (0.78) 0.059 0.006a
VCAT executive function
 Mean (SD) 2.74 (1.62) 3.00 (1.37) 0.315 0.476 3.14 (1.75) 3.07 (1.41) 2.49 (1.49) 0.091 0.099
VCAT attention
 Mean (SD) 0.53 (1.03) 0.40 (0.86) 0.652 0.198 0.71 (1.27) 0.44 (0.89) 0.42 (0.83) 0.488 0.369
VCAT total
 Mean (SD) 14.09 (5.27) 14.40 (4.38) 0.764 0.605 14.91 (5.54) 14.41 (4.35) 13.56 (5.07) 0.005 0.275
  1. MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, VCAT Visual Cognitive Assessment Test, GLM general linear model, SD standard deviation
  2. *GLM adjusted for years of education, race, and employment
  3. **GLM adjusted for age, years of education, race, and employment
  4. Pairwise comparison between the language family groups (post-hoc contrast test): adifference between Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan; bdifference between Sino-Tibetan and Austronesian; cdifference between Indo-European and Austronesian