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Table 2 Demographics, MoCA, and VCAT scores for healthy controls based on language classifications

From: A novel language-neutral Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT): validation in four Southeast Asian countries

  Writing system classification Language family classification
Alphabetic (N = 116) Logographic (N = 48) p value (univariate) p value (GLM)* Indo-European (N = 63) Sino-Tibetan (N = 46) Austronesian (N = 52) p value (univariate) p value (GLM)**
Age
 Mean (SD) 66.10 (8.39) 68.75 (7.05) 0.520   68.90 (7.39) 68.70 (7.09) 62.79 (8.43) < 0.001  
Years of education
 Mean (SD) 12.61 (3.69) 9.13 (2.58) 0.000   12.49 (3.33) 9.09 (2.59) 12.88 (4.02) < 0.001  
Gender
 Male (%) 69 (59.5) 17 (35.4) 0.005   36 (57.1) 16 (34.8) 32 (61.5) 0.642  
Race, N (%)
 Chinese 46 (39.7) 47 (97.9)    45 (71.4) 46 (100.0) 0 (0.0)   
 Malay 38 (32.8) 0 (0.0)    2 (3.2) 0 (0.0) 36 (69.2)   
 Indian 10 (8.6) 1 (2.1)    10 (15.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   
 Filipinos and others 22 (19.0) 0 (0.0) 0.000   6 (9.5) 0 (0.0) 16 (30.8) < 0.001  
Employment, N (%)
 Unemployed 15 (12.9) 8 (16.7)    7 (11.1) 8 (17.4) 8 (15.4)   
 Employed 28 (24.1) 8 (16.7)    3 (4.8) 8 (17.4) 25 (48.1)   
 Retired 73 (62.9) 31 (64.6) 0.546   53 (84.1) 29 (63.0) 19 (36.5) 0.001  
MoCA
 Mean (SD) 24.91 (3.40) 27.02 (2.82) < 0.001 0.001 26.10 (2.76) 27.15 (2.77) 23.38 (3.50) < 0.001 < 0.001a,b,c
VCAT memory
 Mean (SD) 10.41 (1.76) 10.85 (1.98) 0.073 0.130 10.52 (1.67) 10.89 (1.97) 10.33 (1.82) 0.173 0.051b
VCAT language
 Mean (SD) 4.10 (0.77) 4.00 (0.85) 0.539 0.909 4.13 (0.77) 4.00 (0.87) 4.10 (0.77) 0.801 0.423
VCAT visuospatial
 Mean (SD) 2.24 (0.57) 2.38 (0.53) 0.188 0.340 2.27 (0.48) 2.39 (0.54) 2.19 (0.66) 0.285 0.480
VCAT executive function
 Mean (SD) 4.22 (1.70) 3.63 (1.48) 0.24 0.710 4.40 (1.65) 3.65 (1.45) 3.96 (1.74) 0.043 0.270
VCAT attention
 Mean (SD) 1.58 (1.35) 1.50 (1.38) 0.704 0.805 1.46 (1.35) 1.57 (1.38) 1.69 (1.34) 0.661 0.709
VCAT total
 Mean (SD) 22.53 (3.53) 22.35 (3.47) 0.794 0.413 22.78 (3.34) 22.50 (3.37) 22.23 (3.79) 0.730 0.071b
  1. MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, VCAT Visual Cognitive Assessment Test, GLM general linear model, SD standard deviation
  2. *GLM adjusted for years of education, gender, and race
  3. **GLM adjusted for age, years of education, race, and employment
  4. Pairwise comparison between the language family groups (post-hoc contrast test): adifference between Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan; bdifference between Sino-Tibetan and Austronesian; cdifference between Indo-European and Austronesian