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Table 1 Demographic characteristic of HC and CI participants

From: A novel language-neutral Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT): validation in four Southeast Asian countries

  HC (N = 164) CI (N = 120) p value (univariate) p value (GLM)*
Age
 Mean (SD) 66.88 (8.09) 69.38 (9.51) 0.008  
Years of education
 Mean (SD) 11.60 (3.75) 11.39 (3.84) 0.653  
Gender
 Male (%) 86 (52.4) 60 (50.0) 0.719  
Race, N (%)
 Chinese 93 (56.7) 57 (47.5)   
 Malay 38 (23.2) 39 (32.5)   
 Indian 11 (6.7) 5 (4.2)   
 Filipinos and others 22 (13.4) 19 (15.8) 0.220  
Employment, N (%)
 Unemployed 23 (14.0) 9 (7.5)   
 Employed 36 (22.0) 26 (21.7)   
 Retired 104 (63.4) 85 (70.8) 0.203  
Language administered, N (%)
 English 63 (38.4) 35 (29.2)   
 Mandarin 46 (28.0) 27 (22.5)   
 Malay 19 (11.6) 20 (16.7)   
 Others 36 (22.0) 38 (31.7) 0.095  
MoCA
 Mean (SD) 25.52 (3.37) 16.59 (5.75) <0.001 < 0.001
VCAT memory
 Mean (SD) 10.54 (1.83) 5.90 (3.39) < 0.001 < 0.001
VCAT language
 Mean (SD) 4.07 (0.80) 3.06 (1.13) < 0.001 < 0.001
VCAT visuospatial
 Mean (SD) 2.28 (0.56) 1.92 (0.74) < 0.001 < 0.001
VCAT executive function
 Mean (SD) 4.04 (1.66) 2.81 (1.56) < 0.001 < 0.001
VCAT attention
 Mean (SD) 1.55 (1.35) 0.50 (0.99) < 0.001 < 0.001
VCAT total
 Mean (SD) 22.48 (3.50) 14.17 (5.05) < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. HC healthy controls, CI cognitive impairment, GLM general linear model, SD standard deviation, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, VCAT Visual Cognitive Assessment Test
  2. *GLM adjusted for age