Hypothetical model of intervention with a disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. The curved line depicts a biomarker reflecting a specific drug target which responds to treatment. a depicts the courses of mechanism-specific drug(s). b depicts the accompanying tailored risk factor intervention and advice. The dotted grey line indicates the disease course without treatment—progressive functional deterioration. The solid grey line indicates the disease course with treatment—slower deterioration and better functional outcome, i.e. the delay of onset of clinical dementia. Adapted from Hampel et al.