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Table 2 Demographic characteristics, cognitive test scores, APO E allele distribution, brain volumetric measures, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers at baseline and follow-up for the final analysis set (115 MCI subjects) and the two groups MCI-stable and MCI-AD

From: Incremental value of biomarker combinations to predict progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s dementia

  All (n = 115) MCI-stable (n = 87) MCI-AD (n = 28) Standard mean difference* P value**
Age (years) 65.7 ± 9.03 (36–89) 66.5 ± 8.95 (51–80) 65.4 ± 9.37 (36–89) 0.12 ns
Education (years schooling) 9.50 ± 1.91 (7–13) 9.75 ± 1.95 (7–13) 8.75 ± 1.58 (7–13) –0.52 <0.05
Gender (female = 1, male = 2) Male = 67; female = 48 Male = 52; female = 35 Male = 15; female = 13 0.13 ns
Bayer-ADL scale (score: 1–10) 2.47 ± 1.48 (1–4) 2.41 ± 1.52 (1–4) 2.67 ± 1.34 (1–4) 0.18 ns
MADRS (score: 0–60) 7.41 ± 5.75 (0–13) 7.67 ± 5.96 (0–13) 6.62 ± 5.08 (0–11) –0.18 ns
MMSE 27.0 ± 2.12 (20–30) 27.5 ± 1.87 (22–30) 25.8 ± 2.34 (20–29) –0.81 <0.001
CDR-sb 1.80 ± 1.06 (0.5–4.5) 1.59 ± 1.00 (0.5–4.5) 2.45 ± 0.98 (0.5–4) 0.81 <0.001
CERAD-DR-WL 4.82 ± 2.33 (0–10) 5.25 ± 2.23 (0–10) 3.46 ± 2.15 (0–8) –0.77 0.001
Amnestic deficit: CERAD-DR-WL below cut-off (<7 correct responses), n (% present) 88 (77%) 62 (71%) 26 (93%)   
ApoE4 alleles (homo- or heterozygotes), n/sample size (% present) 41/103 (40%) 32/78 (41%) 9/25 (36%)   ns
Hippocampal volume (mm3) 4450 ± 672 (2509–5996) 4585 ± 649 (3036–5996) 4031 ± 570 (2509–5235) –0.82 <0.0001
Total tau in CSF (pg/ml) 411 ± 252 (112–1169) 351 ± 205 (112–1158) 596 ± 294 (156–1169) 0.97 <0.0001
Total tau in CSF below cut-off (>300 pg/ml), n (% abnormal) 65 (57%) 41 (47%) 24 (86%)   
Phosphorylated tau in CSF (pg/ml) 61.3 ± 30.5 (19.7–157) 55.6 ± 26.3 (19.7–130) 78.8 ± 36.1 (27.3–157) 0.76 <0.01
Phosphorylated tau in CSF below cut-off (>60 pg/ml), n (% abnormal) 44 (38%) 27 (31%) 17 (61%)   
Aβ42 in CSF (pg/ml) 749 ± 300 (245–1792) 794 ± 309 (276–1792) 611 ± 223 (245–1134) –0.61 <0.001
Aβ42 in CSF below cut-off (<600 pg/ml), n (% abnormal) 39 (34%) 22 (25%) 17 (61%)   
Aβ40 in CSF (pg/ml) 9654 ± 2731 (2604–16320) 9601 ± 2561 (4175–16320) 9817 ± 3251 (2604–15210) 0.08 ns
Aβ40 in CSF below cut-off, n (% abnormal) n/a n/a n/a   
Follow-up time (months) 25.5 ± 9.8 (12–36) 26.1 ± 8.0 (12–36) 25.2 ± 8.9 (12–36)   ns
  1. Values are given as means ± SD (range) unless otherwise stated
  2. *Standardized (mean values in MCI-AD patients – mean values in MCI-stable patients)/standard deviation in the group of all patients
  3. **P values refer to differences between MCI-stable and MCI-AD
  4. Aβ40 amyloid-beta1–40, Aβ42 amyloid-beta1–42, AD Alzheimer’s disease, B-ADL Bayer activities of daily living, CDR-sb Clinical Dementia Rating–sum-of-boxes, CERAD-DR-WL Consortium to Establish a Registry of Dementia–delayed recall word list, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, MADRS Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MCI cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, n/a not available, ns not significant