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Table 1 Subjects’ clinical and demographic features

From: Distinct white matter microstructural abnormalities and extracellular water increases relate to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease with and without cerebrovascular disease

Groups HC (n = 30) AD (n = 41) AD + CeVD (n = 25) VaD (n = 19) Overall ANOVA (F test)
Age, years 71.4 (6.7) 74.9 (8.0) 75.7 (5.3) 74.1 (7.2) 2.4
Sex, F/M 15/15 15/26 8/17 11/8 χ2 = 4.3
Handedness, L/R 3/27 0/41 0/25 0/19
Ethnicity, C/N 28/2 33/8 18/7 15/4 χ2 = 4.4
CDR-SB 0.1 (0.2) 6.2 (2.2)a 7.2 (2.9)a 6.4 (2.5)a 69.6b
MMSE (maximum score 30) 28.2 (1.3) 16.8 (5.0)a 15.6 (4.1)a 17.4 (4.6) a 60.3b
WMH visual rating 4.3 (2.3) 5.0 (1.3) 11.2 (4.5) a,c 9.2 (4.6) a,c 29.3b
Patients with cognitive scores   AD (n = 33) AD + CeVD (n = 20) VaD (n = 16) ANOVA (F test)
 Age   75.6 (7.6) 75.1 (5.7) 73.8 (8.4) 0.3
 Sex, F/M   12/21 7/13 10/6 χ2 = 3.6
 Handedness L/R   0/33 0/29 0/16
 Ethnicity, C/N   25/8 14/6 13/3 χ2 = 0.6
 CDR-SB   6.3 (2.4) 7.3 (2.9) 6.6 (2.6) 0.9
 MMSE (maximum score 30)   16.4 (5.2) 15.8 (4.5) 17.4 (4.4) 0.5
Visual construction   0.09 (1.0) −0.08 (0.9) −0.09 (1.1) 0.3
Visual motor   0.09 (1.1) −0.08 (0.9) −0.08 (1.0) 0.2
Attention   0.09 (1.1) 0.02 (0.8) −0.21 (1.1) 0.5
Executive functioning   0.17 (1.1) −0.18 (0.9) −0.13 (1.0) 0.9
Language   0.09 (1.1) −0.15 (0.9) 0 (0.9) 0.4
Verbal memory   −0.07 (1.1) −0.22 (0.6) 0.42 (1.1) 2.0
Visuospatial memory   −0.09 (1.1) −0.21 (0.8) 0.45 (1.1) 2.3
  1. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, AD + CeVD Alzheimer’s disease with cerebrovascular disease, ANOVA Analysis of variance, C/N Chinese/non-Chinese, CDR-SB Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes, HC Healthy control subjects, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, VaD Vascular dementia, WMH White matter hyperintensity
  2. Values represent mean (SD). The WMH visual rating was measured by the age-related WM change scale score. A subset of patients with complete cognitive scores was used for brain-cognition association analyses
  3. a Group mean was different from HC on the basis of post hoc pairwise comparisons (p < 0.05)
  4. b Group differences at p < 0.05 significance level
  5. c Group mean was different from the AD group (p < 0.05)