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Table 2 Effects on neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms

From: Structured physical exercise improves neuropsychiatric symptoms in acute dementia care: a hospital-based RCT

  Intervention group, mean (SD) Control group, mean (SD) RM ANOVA group × time
Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up F(1,68) p d 1 – β
NPI totala 22.5 (12.3) 10.3 (7.3) 22.5 (13.9) 16.2 (9.9) 4.4 0.04 0.51 0.99
 Psychotic symptoms 3.3 (5.9) 1.0 (1.9) 2.8 (4.6) 1.9 (3.3) 1.6 0.22 0.30 0.70
 Emotional symptoms 11.0 (7.3) 4.0 (4.2) 10.7 (9.0) 7.2 (5.9) 3.7 0.06 0.75 0.99
 Behavior symptoms 6.9 (4.9) 4.0 (4.4) 6.1 (4.5) 5.2 (4.6) 4.6 0.04 0.52 0.99
 Neurovegetative symptoms 1.3 (2.7) 1.3 (2.8) 2.9 (4.6) 1.9 (3.1) 0.8 0.39 0.21 0.41
CMAI totalb 51.4 (12.5) 41.7 (10.2) 51.3 (12.4) 45.5 (10.7) 2.6 0.11 0.40 0.90
 Aggressive behavior 15.9 (5.1) 12.9 (1.8) 16.5 (5.8) 14.1 (2.9) <0.1 0.57 0.42 0.21
 Physically nonaggressive behavior 16.3 (7.4) 13.9 (7.5) 16.8 (6.1) 14.9 (6.7) 0.2 0.70 0.11 0.15
 Verbally agitated behavior 11.3 (5.9) 7.4 (4.1) 9.7 (4.4) 8.8 (4.4) 7.9 0.01 0.68 0.99
 Hiding and hoarding 2.3 (1.5) 2.4 (1.5) 2.7 (2.3) 2.3 (1.1) 2.3 0.33 0.24 0.50
  1. Number of patients: n = 35 in each group
  2. CMAI Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory, d effect size (Cohen’s d), F F-ratio from ANOVA (between-group degrees of freedom, within-group degrees of freedom), p statistical significance, RM-ANOVA repeated-measures analysis of variance, 1 – β test power, SD standard deviation
  3. aNPI range and scaling, 0–144 points (0 meaning no symptoms); dimensions: psychotic symptoms, 0–24 points (0 meaning no symptoms); emotional symptoms, 0–48 points (0 meaning no symptoms); behavior symptoms, 0–48 points (0 meaning no symptoms); neurovegetative symptoms, 0–24 points (0 meaning no symptoms)
  4. bCMAI range and scaling, 29–203 points (29 meaning no symptoms); dimensions: aggressive behavior, 12–84 points (12 meaning no symptoms); physically nonaggressive behavior, 6–42 points (6 meaning no symptoms); verbally agitated behavior, 4–28 points (4 meaning no symptoms); hiding and hoarding, 2–14 points (2 meaning no symptoms)