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Table 1 Standard neuropsychological assessments used in this study

From: Can cognitive assessment really discriminate early stages of Alzheimer’s and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia at initial clinical presentation?

Cognitive domain and subdomaina Cognitive tests First author, publication date [reference]
Dementia screening MMSE Folstein, 1975 [22]
Memory
 Verbal spana VLMT trial 1 Helmstaedter, 2001 [46]
CERAD wordlist trial 1 Aebi, 2002 [47]
 Verbal learninga VLMT trial 1–5 see above
CERAD wordlist trial 1–3 see above
 Verbal recalla VLMT trial 6 see above
CERAD wordlist recall see above
 Verbal recognitiona VLMT trial 8 true see above
CERAD wordlist recognition % see above
 Visual recalla CFT 3-minute recall Meyers, 1996 [48]
CERAD figure recall see above
Language
 Object naminga Wortproduktionsprüfung (Word Production Test) Blanken, 1999 [49]
CERAD Boston naming test 15 see above
Visuospatial skills
 Figure copya CFT copy see above
CERAD figure copy see above
Executive function
 Semantic word fluency a RWT- 1 minute category fluency “animals” Aschenbrenner, 2000 [50]
 Phonematic word fluency a RWT- 1 minute letter fluency “S” see above
 Set shiftinga TMT B Tombaugh, 2004 [51]
 Digit span backwardsa Wechsler Memory Scale – backward digit span Härting, 2000 [52]
Attention
 Processing speeda TMT A see above
Praxis
 Pantomime of object usea Cologne Apraxia Screening 1.1 and 1.2. Weiss, 2013 [53]
 Imitation of limb posturesa Cologne Apraxia Screening 2.2 see above
 Imitation of face posturesa Cologne Apraxia Screening 2.1 see above
Social cognition
 Facial emotion recognitiona Ekman Facial Emotion Recognition test (SEA) Funkiewiez, 2012 [54]
  1. Abbreviations: CERAD Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease neuropsychological test battery, CFT Complex Figure Test, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, RWT Regensburg Word Fluency Test, SEA Social Cognition and Emotional Assessment, TMT Trail Making Test, VLMT Verbal Learning and Memory Test
  2. Column 1 displays all covered cognitive domains (bold) and subdomains. Column 2 displays the incorporated tests to cover the respective subdomains. Italicised tests display the alternative test set, which was employed for patients >65 years of age (Alzheimer’s disease 18 of 43, behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia 4 of 26). For inter-test and inter-subdomain comparability in statistical analysis, individual test raw scores were z-transformed. Column 3 presents the first author’s name and the publication date of the normative data we used to estimate patients’ test performance
  3. aUsed for statistical analysis