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Table 3 Antidepressant use and associated risk of traumatic brain injury among persons with Alzheimer’s disease

From: Risk of head and traumatic brain injuries associated with antidepressant use among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer’s disease: a nationwide matched cohort study

  Number of events Person years Age-adjusted event rate per 100 person-years (95% CI) Unadjusted HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)a Propensity score adjusted HR (95% CI)
Users compared with nonusers
 Nonusers 492 47,514 1.10 (1.00–1.20) Reference Reference Reference
 Users 185 13,184 1.33 (1.13–1.53) 1.30 (1.10–1.54) 1.25 (1.05–1.49) 1.26 (1.06–1.50)
Antidepressant use classified according to duration of use
 1–30 days 21 877 2.27 (1.29–3.25) 2.13 (1.16–3.93) 2.06 (1.12–3.80) 2.06 (1.12–3.82)
 31–180 days 46 3,154 1.39 (0.98–1.80) 1.26 (0.88–1.78) 1.21 (0.85–1.73) 1.22 (0.85–1.73)
 181–365 days 40 2,678 1.52 (1.04–2.00) 1.25 (0.87–1.81) 1.21 (0.84–1.75) 1.21 (0.84–1.75)
 366–731 days 47 3,291 1.38 (0.98–1.77) 1.41 (1.01–1.96) 1.35 (0.97–1.90) 1.36 (0.97–1.90)
  > 731 days 31 3,214 0.64 (0.26–1.02) 1.11 (0.75–1.64) 1.07 (0.72–1.58) 1.07 (0.73–1.59)
Drug class specific analyses (compared with nonuse, n = 38 concomitant users excluded)
 Other antidepressant 50 4,461 1.08 (0.72–1.43) 0.91 (0.68–1.22) 0.87 (0.65–1.17) 0.86 (0.64–1.15)
 SSRI 114 7,671 1.31 (1.06–1.56) 1.22 (0.99–1.49) 1.21 (0.99–1.49) 1.17 (0.95–1.44)
As-treated analyses restricted to the first 180 days
 Nonusers 117 9,759 1.13 (0.92–1.34) Reference Reference Reference
 Users 67 4,035 1.59 (1.20–1.97) 1.38 (1.02–1.87) 1.23 (0.90–1.67) 1.26 (0.92–1.71)
Intention-to-treat analyses restricted to the first 180 days
 Nonusers 129 10,254 1.19 (0.98–1.40) Reference Reference Reference
 Users 89 5,084 1.66 (1.31–2.01) 1.39 (1.06–1.83) 1.28 (0.97–1.69) 1.31 (1.00–1.73)
  1. The reference category in all analyses is nonuse
  2. aAdjusted for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma/COPD, epilepsy, substance abuse, cancer, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression, baseline use of antipsychotics, opioids and benzodiazepines and related drugs, history of stroke and hip fracture, and socioeconomic position
  3. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor