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Table 1 Comparison of antidepressant users and nonusers in terms of baseline characteristics, and unadjusted and propensity score adjusted logistic regression for differences

From: Risk of head and traumatic brain injuries associated with antidepressant use among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer’s disease: a nationwide matched cohort study

  Antidepressant nonuser (n = 21,820) Antidepressant user (n = 10,910) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Propensity score adjusted OR (95% CI)
Female gender (matching criteria) 69.0% (15,064) 69.0% (7532) 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.94 (0.90–1.00)
Aged ≥80 years (matching criteria) 51.6% (11,261) 51.4% (5613) 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 0.94 (0.90–1.00)
Socioeconomic position
 High 34.7% (7578) 33.5% (3659) Reference Reference
 Medium 57.8% (12,618) 59.2% (6463) 1.06 (1.01–1.12) 1.04 (0.98–1.09)
 Low 6.3% (1380) 6.0% (655) 0.98 (0.90–1.09) 0.92 (0.83–1.01)
 Unknown 1.1% (244) 1.2% (133) 1.13 (0.91–1.40) 1.06 (0.85–1.33)
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular disease 50.6% (11,043) 50.7% (5533) 1.00 (0.96–1.05) 1.00 (0.95–1.05)
 Chronic heart failure 28.1% (6124) 29.8% (3215) 1.09 (1.03–1.14) 1.00 (0.95–1.06)
 Cardiac arrhythmia 6.6% (1441) 7.4% (807) 1.13 (1.03–1.24) 1.00 (0.91–1.10)
 Hypertension 30.0% (6543) 31.6% (3445) 1.08 (1.03–1.13) 1.00 (0.95–1.05)
 Epilepsy 2.1% (451) 1.8% (198) 0.87 (0.74–1.04) 0.99 (0.83–1.17)
 Asthma/COPD 8.4% (1837) 8.5% (925) 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 1.00 (0.92–1.09)
 Any chronic pulmonary disease 10.4% (2258) 11.1% (1209) 1.08 (1.00–1.16) 1.00 (0.93–1.08)
 Pulmonary circulation disorders 0.1% (19) 0.1% (11) 1.16 (0.55–2.44) 1.01 (0.48–2.15)
 Diabetes 14.1% (3066) 12.8% (1395) 0.90 (0.84–0.96) 0.99 (0.93–1.06)
 Complicated diabetes 16.1% (3506) 14.9% (1625) 0.91 (0.86–0.98) 0.99 (0.93–1.06)
 Schizophrenia 1.3% (282) 1.1% (121) 0.86 (0.69–1.06) 0.97 (0.78–1.21)
 Bipolar disorder/depression 1.8% (388) 2.7% (291) 1.51 (1.30–1.77) 1.00 (0.85–1.17)
 Psychosis 3.7% (806) 5.7% (624) 1.58 (1.42–1.76) 1.00 (0.90–1.12)
 Metastatic cancer 0.2% (41) 0.2% (18) 0.88 (0.51–1.53) 0.99 (0.56–1.74)
 Any tumor 12.2% (2666) 13.0% (1420) 1.08 (1.00–1.15) 1.00 (0.93–1.08)
 Renal failure 1.3% (273) 1.0% (109) 0.80 (0.64–1.00) 0.97 (0.77–1.22)
 Hemiplegia 0.5% (99) 0.5% (59) 1.19 (0.86–1.65) 1.01 (0.72–1.40)
 Coagulopathy 0.6% (135) 0.7% (78) 1.16 (0.87–1.53) 1.01 (0.75–1.34)
 Liver disease 1.1% (231) 1.0% (110) 0.95 (0.76–1.20) 0.99 (0.79–1.26)
 Peripheral vascular disorder 4.4% (958) 5.0% (550) 1.16 (1.04–1.29) 1.00 (0.90–1.12)
 Anemia 6.8% (1485) 6.4% (693) 0.93 (0.85–1.02) 0.99 (0.90–1.09)
 Fluid and electrolyte disorders 2.9% (633) 3.4% (367) 1.17 (1.02–1.33) 1.00 (0.87–1.14)
 Alcohol abuse 1.1% (239) 1.5% (162) 1.36 (1.11–1.66) 1.01 (0.81–1.23)
 Substance abuse 1.6% (343) 2.0% (218) 1.28 (1.08–1.52) 1.00 (0.84–1.19)
 Previous hospital-treated fracture 19.1% (4165) 21.3% (2328) 1.15 (1.09–1.22) 1.00 (0.95–1.07)
 Hip fracture 5.3% (1153) 6.2% (673) 1.18 (1.07–1.30) 1.00 (0.91–1.11)
 Stroke 8.8% (1928) 10.1% (1097) 1.15 (1.07–1.25) 1.01 (0.93–1.09)
Drug use
 Drug use ever before the start of the follow-up
  Opioids 20.3% (4419) 24.6% (2678) 1.28 (1.21–1.35) 1.00 (0.95–1.06)
  Antipsychotics 10.0% (2175) 10.5% (1147) 1.06 (0.98–1.15) 0.99 (0.92–1.07)
  BZDRs 34.8% (7583) 45.4% (4952) 1.56 (1.49–1.64) 1.01 (0.96–1.07)
  Antidepressants 13.5% (2942) 21.2% (2315) 1.73 (1.63–1.84) 1.01 (0.94–1.08)
  Bisphosphonates 13.4% (2915) 14.3% (1560) 1.08 (1.01–1.16) 1.00 (0.93–1.07)
  Anti-parkinson drugs 3.3% (727) 3.8% (410) 1.13 (1.00–1.28) 1.00 (0.88–1.14)
  Antiepileptics 7.5% (1636) 8.9% (975) 1.21 (1.11–1.32) 1.00 (0.92–1.09)
  Analgesics 78.9% (17,215) 82.1% (8952) 1.22 (1.15–1.30) 1.01 (0.95–1.07)
  Cardiovascular drugs 84.0% (18,328) 85.5% (9327) 1.12 (1.05–1.20) 1.00 (0.94–1.07)
 Drug use at the start of the follow-up
  Opioids 3.9% (851) 7.4% (805) 1.96 (1.78–2.17) 1.00 (0.90–1.11)
  Antipsychotics 13.2% (2875) 20.7% (2260) 1.72 (1.62–1.83) 1.00 (0.94–1.08)
  BZDRs 16.9% (3696) 31.0% (3379) 2.20 (2.09–2.32) 1.00 (0.92–1.08)
  1. BZDR benzodiazepines and related drugs, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, OR odds ratio