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Table 2 Examples of clinical tools used and when in the disease course they are most useful

From: On the path to 2025: understanding the Alzheimer’s disease continuum

  Examples of tools
  Brief tools for general setting Neuropsychological testing Clinical trials
Clinically normal/SCI CFI [55]   ADCS-PACCa [38]
FCI [56]
MCI due to AD/prodromal AD MIS [57] FCSRT [58] FCSRT [58]
AD8 [59] RBANS [63] ADCOMa [60]
GPCOG [61] CVLT [66] FCI [56]
Mini-cog [62]   RBANS [63]
Five-word test [64, 65]   
CFI [55]
MoCA [67]
ACE III [68]
MMSE [69]
Dementia MMSE [69] ADAS-Cog [70] ADAS-Cog [70]
  ACE III [68] RBANS [63] CDR [71]
RBANS [63]
  SIB [72]   SIB [72]
  1. aComposite tools—comprised of select items from existing scales
  2. ACE III Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-III, AD Alzheimer’s disease, AD8 Eight-item Informant Interview to Differentiate Aging and Dementia, ADAS-Cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale—cognitive subscale, ADCOM AD composite, ADCS Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study, ADL activities of daily living, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, CFI Cognitive Function Instrument, CVLT California Verbal Learning Test, FCI Financial Capacity Instrument, FCSRT Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, GPCOG General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MIS Memory Impairment Screen, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, PACC Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite, RBANS Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, SIB Severe Impairment Battery, SCI subjective clinical impairment