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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and biomarker data

From: No added diagnostic value of non-phosphorylated tau fraction (p-taurel) in CSF as a biomarker for differential dementia diagnosis

  Controls AD FTLD DLB CJD p value
Gender (% male/female) (n) 55/45 (20) 49/51 (45) 51/49 (45) 71/39 (45) 33/67 (21) 0.049
Age at CSF sampling (years) 69.4 (61.5–74.7) 71.2 (66.7–79.2) 63.6 (55.1–71.7) 75.5 (71.2–81.2) 67.2 (57.4–76.4) <0.001 e
MMSE (0–30) (n) NA* 20 (15–25) (42) 21 (15–25) (29) 19 (16–23) (38) NA 0.54
1–42 (pg/mL) 812 (646–1108) 509 (372–594) 641 (457–858) 547 (423–744) 545 (300–686) <0.001 a,c,d,e
t-tau (pg/mL) 257 (173–381) 627 (429–928) 320 (219–420) 272 (232–398) >1440$ <0.001 a,d,e,f
p-tau181 (pg/mL) 40.3 (32.9–58.6) 80.0 (60.5–105.0) 36.7 (28.3–49.0) 45.0 (39.8–64.7) 46.0 (32.2–53.4) <0.001 a,e,f,g
p-taurel (pg/mL) 32.0 (32.0–49.7) 82.7 (46.6–135.7) 32.0 (32.0–59.0) 44.3 (32.0–73.8) 1375 (738–1820) <0.001 a,d,e,f,g
1–42/t-tau 3.40 (2.20–4.76) 0.75 (0.50–1.02) 2.00 (1.36–3.33) 2.08 (1.10–3.13) 0.39 (0.24–0.60) <0.001 a,d,e,f
1–42/p-tau181 20.2 (14.7–24.7) 5.8 (4.1–7.1) 18.5 (11.1–25.0) 13.7 (6.8–18.3) 12.3 (6.8–19.6) <0.001 a,c,e,f,g
1–42/p-taurel 23.1 (16.2–30.3) 5.0 (3.5–10.3) 15.8 (9.2–21.6) 11.6 (8.0–16.0) 0.4 (0.2–0.9) <0.001 a,c,d,e,f,g
p-tau181/t-tau 0.176 (0.156–0.197) 0.132 (0.104–0.149) 0.117 (0.097–0.149) 0.158 (0.143–0.177) 0.033 (0.024–0.038) <0.001 a,b,d,f,g
p-tau181/p-taurel 1.17 (0.85–1.30) 1.00 (0.64–1.43) 0.82 (0.61–1.11) 0.94 (0.70–1.16) 0.03 (0.03–0.06) <0.001 d,g
APOEε4 carriers (%) (n) 40.0 (5) 61.1 (36) 32.1 (28) 33.3 (33) NA 0.059
  1. Values are presented as median (interquartile range), percentage (%) or number (n)
  2. Gender distribution was compared by Chi-square test
  3. Significant differences in clinical data and biomarker levels were determined by Kruskal-Wallis with post-hoc Dunn’s correction: a controls vs. AD; b controls vs. FTLD; c controls vs. DLB; d controls vs. CJD; e AD vs. FTLD; f AD vs. DLB; g AD vs. CJD
  4. Age at CSF sampling was also significantly different for FTLD vs. DLB and CJD vs. DLB
  5. Statistically significant p values (<0.05) are marked in bold
  6. *MMSE only performed when clinically relevant (n = 3), no score <27
  7. $Most CJD patients had t-tau values above the detection limit, which were set to highest point of the standard curve +20%
  8. 1–42 amyloid-beta of 42 amino acids, AD Alzheimer’s disease, CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, DLB dementia with Lewy bodies, FTLD frontotemporal lobar degeneration, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, NA not available, p-tau 181 tau protein phosphorylated at threonine 181, p-tau rel non-phosphorylated tau fraction, t-tau total tau protein