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Table 2 Efficacy of USMART vs usual care

From: Efficacy of the Ubiquitous Spaced Retrieval-based Memory Advancement and Rehabilitation Training (USMART) program among patients with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled crossover trial

  USMART (n = 43) Usual care (n = 42) Statisticsa
Outcome measure Prior after Change Prior After Change p value Cohen's d (95% CI)
WLMT 16.91 ± 4.49 18.81 ± 5.12 1.91 ± 2.68 17.79 ± 4.48 19.12 ± 4.49 1.33 ± 3.21 0.351 0.20 (−0.60–1.17)
WLRT 4.63 ± 2.31 5.74 ± 2.26 1.12 ± 1.56 5.14 ± 2.35 5.50 ± 2.19 0.36 ± 1.56 0.031 0.49 (0.03–0.96)
WLRcT 8.56 ± 1.82 8.95 ± 1.38 0.40 ± 1.40 8.62 ± 1.83 8.52 ± 1.93 −0.10 ± 1.45 0.229 0.36 (−0.06–0.79)
SMCQ 6.07 ± 3.13 5.81 ± 3.34 −0.26 ± 2.04 5.90 ± 3.32 5.62 ± 3.34 −0.29 ± 2.09 0.705 0.01 (−0.60–0.65)
GDS 9.23 ± 6.80 8.49 ± 6.85 −0.74 ± 4.25 8.60 ± 6.80 8.17 ± 6.8 −0.43 ± 4.04 0.799 −0.08 (−1.35–1.15)
MMSE 25.49 ± 3.40 26.37 ± 2.99 0.88 ± 2.89 25.83 ± 2.92 25.76 ± 3.28 −0.07 ± 2.31 0.118 0.37 (−0.50–1.07)
  1. Data shown as mean ± standard deviation
  2. CI confidence interval, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, n number of subjects, SMCQ Subjective Memory Complaint Questionnaire, USMART Ubiquitous Spaced Retrieval-based Memory Advancement and Rehabilitation Training, WLMT Word List Memory Test, WLRcT Word List Recognition Test, WLRT Word List Recall Test
  3. aBy linear mixed model adjusted for age, gender, education, and current cognitive-enhancer use