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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of participants

From: Efficacy of the Ubiquitous Spaced Retrieval-based Memory Advancement and Rehabilitation Training (USMART) program among patients with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled crossover trial

Characteristic All participants Sequence 1a Sequence 2b p value*
(n = 43) (n = 23) (n = 20)
Age (years) 74.01 ± 5.53 73.74 ± 4.84 74.50 ± 6.44 0.668
Female 20 (46.5%) 10 (43.5%) 10 (50.0%) 0.669
Educational level (years) 13.22 ± 3.33 13.52 ± 3.20 12.70 ± 3.69 0.443
Cognitive enhancer use 19 (44.2%) 10 (43.5%) 9 (45.0%) 0.128
WLMT 16.56 ± 4.41 15.83 ± 4.49 17.40 ± 4.28 0.247
WLRT 4.44 ± 2.37 4.30 ± 2.48 4.60 ± 2.30 0.687
WLRcT 8.47 ± 1.82 8.70 ± 1.49 8.20 ± 2.14 0.379
SMCQ 6.51 ± 3.15 5.87 ± 3.22 7.25 ± 2.97 0.152
GDS 9.28 ± 6.78 9.96 ± 7.46 8.50 ± 6.00 0.483
MMSE 25.12 ± 2.88 25.70 ± 3.17 24.45 ± 2.42 0.152
  1. Data shown as mean ± standard deviation or n (%)
  2. *Unpaired t tests for continuous variables and chi-squared tests for categorical variables
  3. GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, n number of subjects, SMCQ Subjective Memory Complaint Questionnaire, USMART Ubiquitous Spaced Retrieval-based Memory Advancement and Rehabilitation Training, WLMT Word List Memory Test, WLRcT Word List Recognition Test, WLRT Word List Recall Test
  4. aParticipants in the USMART–usual care sequence
  5. bParticipants in the usual care–USMART sequence