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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample

From: Association between blood pressure and Alzheimer disease measured up to 27 years prior to diagnosis: the HUNT Study

  No dementia All dementia Alzheimer disease Vascular dementia Alzheimer disease, mixed P valuea
Total study population, n 24,059 579 383 118 78  
Female sex, n (%) 12,758 (53.0) 373 (64.4) 257 (67.1) 63 (53.4) 53 (67.9) 0.00
Age in HUNT 1 (1984–1986), years, mean (SD) 50.2 (11.4) 59.9 (7.0) 60.2 (6.8) 58.5 (8.0) 60.7 (6.0) 0.00
 HUNT 1b: Education completion, n (%)       0.00
  Primary 14,371 (59.7) 442 (76.3) 292 (76.2) 90 (76.3) 60 (76.9)  
  Upper secondary 6032 (25.1) 97 (16.8) 62 (16.2) 22 (18.6) 13 (16.7)  
  Higher 3656 (15.2) 40 (6.9) 29 (7.6) 6 (5.1) 5 (6.4)  
 HUNT 1: Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD) 25.4 (3.6) 26.2 (3.8) 26.1 (3.7) 26.6 (4.5) 26.3 (3.2) 0.00
 HUNT 1: Pulse, beats/minute, mean (SD) 72.8 (13.0) 73.8 (13.4) 73.6 (14.0) 73.2 (11.8) 75.3 (12.4) 0.07
 HUNT 1: Systolic BP, mmHg, mean (SD) 134.3 (20.1) 140.7 (20.0) 140.4 (20.0) 142.1 (20.1) 140.4 (20.2) 0.00
 HUNT 1: Diastolic BP, mmHg, mean (SD) 84.5 (10.7) 86.7 (10.7) 86.1 (10.6) 88.1 (10.6) 88.1 (11.3) 0.00
 HUNT 1: Mean arterial pressure, mmHg, mean (SD) 101.1 (12.6) 104.7 (12.5) 104.2 (12.4) 106.1 (12.3) 105.5 (13.1) 0.00
 HUNT 1: Pulse pressure, mmHg, mean (SD) 49.8 (15.1) 54.0 (15.7) 54.3 (15.7) 54.0 (16.2) 52.4 (14.8) 0.00
Age in HUNT 2 (1995–1997), years, mean (SD) 61.6 (11.4) 71.4 (6.9) 71.6 (6.8) 69.9 (7.9) 72.1 (5.9) 0.00
 HUNT 2: Systolic BP, mmHg, mean (SD) 145.4 (22.8) 153.7 (23.2) 152.8 (23.3) 155.4 (21.7) 155.5 (24.4) 0.00
 HUNT 2: Diastolic BP, mmHg, mean (SD) 84.1 (12.1) 84.6 (12.8) 83.8 (12.8) 86.9 (11.7) 85.5 (14.1) 0.30
 HUNT 2: Mean arterial pressure, mmHg, mean (SD) 104.5 (14.4) 107.6 (14.8) 106.8 (14.9) 110.0 (13.3) 108.8 (16.2) 0.00
 HUNT 2: Pulse pressure, mmHg, mean (SD) 61.3 (16.8) 69.0 (17.4) 69.0 (17.3) 68.5 (18.0) 70.0 (17.5) 0.00
 HUNT 2: Cholesterol, mmol/L, mean (SD) 6.3 (1.2) 6.7 (1.2) 6.7 (1.2) 6.6 (1.2) 6.6 (1.2) 0.00
 HUNT 2: Nonfasting blood glucose, mmol/L, mean (SD) 5.7 (1.7) 5.9 (1.7) 5.8 (1.8) 6.0 (1.8) 5.8 (1.5) 0.03
 HUNT 2: Waist-to-hip ratio 0.86 (0.08) 0.85 (0.08) 0.85 (0.08) 0.87 (0.07) 0.85 (0.07) 0.04
 HUNT 2: Estimated glomerular filtration rate, ml/minute/1.73 m2 70.2 (13.6) 63.1 (12.3) 62.9 (12.3) 64.5 (14.1) 62.2 (9.2) 0.00
  Antihypertensive tablet, current or past, n (%) 5389 (22.4) 190 (32.8) 120 (31.3) 45 (38.1) 25 (32.1) 0.00
  Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 307 (1.3) 5 (0.9) 4 (1.0) 1 (3.4) 0 0.38
  Myocardial infarction, n (%) 314 (1.3) 9 (1.6) 8 (2.1) 1 (0.8) 0 0.60
  Angina pectoris, n (%) 2047 (8.5) 86 (14.9) 56 (14.6) 18 (15.3) 12 (15.4) 0.00
  Stroke, n (%) 139 (0.6) 5 (0.9) 1 (0.3) 2 (1.7) 2 (2.9) 0.37
  Smoker, n (%)       0.00
    Never 9933 (41.3) 292 (50.4) 205 (53.5) 45 (38.1) 42 (53.8)  
    Ever 9220 (34.2) 197 (34.0) 126 (32.9) 48 (40.7) 23 (29.5)  
    Current 5906 (24.5) 90 (15.5) 52 (13.6) 25 (21.2) 13 (16.7)  
  Physical activity frequency, n (%)       0.00
    Never 2361 (9.8) 79 (13.6) 51 (13.3) 20 (16.9) 8 (10.3)  
    Less often than once per week 6899 (28.7) 135 (23.3) 82 (21.4) 30 (25.4) 23 (29.5)  
    Once per week 6549 (27.2) 135 (23.3) 83 (21.7) 30 (25.4) 22 (28.2)  
    Two or three times per week 5506 (22.9) 142 (24.5) 109 (28.5) 19 (16.1) 14 (17.9)  
    Nearly every day 2744 (11.4) 88 (15.2) 58 (15.1) 19 (16.1) 11 (14.1)  
  Alcohol use during past 2 weeks, n (%)       0.00
    Abstainer 2447 (10.2) 94 (16.2) 62 (16.2) 19 (16.1) 13 (16.7)  
    None 11,014 (45.8) 287 (49.6) 202 (52.7) 52 (44.1) 33 (42.3)  
    One to four times 9108 (37.9) 155 (26.8) 91 (23.8) 38 (32.2) 26 (33.3)  
    Five to ten times 740 (3.1) 21 (3.6) 14 (3.7) 4 (3.4) 3 (3.8)  
    More than ten times 750 (3.1) 22 (3.8) 14 (3.7) 5 (4.2) 3 (3.8)  
  Subjective health status       0.00
    Poor, n (%) 67 (0.3) 3 (0.5) 2 (0.5) 1 (0.8) 0  
    Not so good, n (%) 3947 (16.4) 144 (24.9) 93 (24.3) 29 (24.6) 22 (28.2)  
    Good, n (%) 16,053 (66.7) 381 (65.8) 257 (67.1) 74 (62.7) 50 (64.1)  
    Very good, n (%) 3992 (16.6) 51 (8.8) 31 (8.1) 14 (11.9) 6 (7.7)  
  1. Abbreviations: BP Blood pressure, HUNT 1 Helse Undersøkelse Nord-Trøndelag (1984–1986), HUNT 2 Helse Undersøkelse Nord-Trøndelag (1995–1997)
  2. a P values are derived from t tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for the binary variables and indicate differences between “no dementia” and “all dementia”
  3. bModel 1: systolic BP