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Table 2 Overview of the errorless learning (EL) and trial and error learning (TEL) arms of the intervention

From: Structured relearning of activities of daily living in dementia: the randomized controlled REDALI-DEM trial on errorless learning

EL intervention TEL intervention
– Task is divided into core elements
– Each step is demonstrated by the therapists accompanied with verbal instructions
– The patient is then invited to perform the task step, and is verbally guided by the therapists
– Only when the patient performs the first step correctly does the therapist demonstrate and instruct the next step
– In case of hesitation or (near) error by the patient, the step is repeated again and the sequence is also repeated again (both with demonstrating and verbal instructions by the therapist)
– From session six onward it is allowed to fade out help
– The patient must try to perform the task by himself/herself for the first 10 min, regardless of the amount of errors or hesitations
– Intervention is only allowed within the first 10 min when the patient becomes irritated or frustrated
– After 10 min, intervention is allowed using a stepwise approach:
1. Stimulating the patient by asking open questions
2. Summarizing what has already been done and what the task goal is
3. Giving clear verbal instruction
4. Demonstrating the task steps