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Table 2 Neuropsychological test raw scores and z-scores of patients and healthy control subjects

From: Cognitive profile in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies

  Patients with DLB (n = 37) HCs (n = 29) p Value
Raw scorea z-Scorea Raw scorea z-Scorea
Global functioning MMSE (score/30) 27.36 (1.97)   29.00 (0.90)   0.008
Memory
 FCSRT IR 15.11 (1.72) −0.17 (2.34) 15.90 (0.31) 0.81 (0.49) NS
FR1 7.31 (2.36) −0.66 (1.00) 8.79 (2.09) 0.02 (0.78) 0.006
FR2 8.28 (2.91) −0.55 (1.18) 10.62 (2.43) 0.40 (0.91) 0.001
FR3 9.89 (2.67) −0.51 (1.01) 11.38 (2.50) 0.08 (0.91) 0.035
TR1 14.22 (1.85) −0.27 (1.12) 15.07 (1.22) 0.29 (0.62) NS
TR2 14.81 (2.03) −0.35 (1.76) 15.72 (0.65) 0.49 (0.40) NS
TR3 15.43 (0.95) −0.11 (1.04) 15.83 (0.38) 0.31 (0.46) NS
Recognition 15.79 (0.59) 0.16 (0.93) 15.89 (0.31) 0.35 (0.53) NS
DFR 9.97 (3.82) −0.50 (1.69) 12.45 (1.66) 0.53 (0.68) 0.003
DTR 15.15 (1.67) −0.46 (2.05) 15.90 (0.31) 0.47 (0.66) NS
 DMS-48 Set 1 44.05 (5.35) −2.72 (5.71, 32.4) 46.93 (1.28) 0.21 (0.97) 0.021
Set 2 44.23 (4.73) −2.14 (4.05, 48.6) 47.10 (0.94) 0.14 (0.72) 0.008
Digit span (number of digits) 5.25 (1.13)   5.92 (1.02)   0.042
Executive function
 FAB 15.49 (2.67) −2.81 (4.61, 32.4) 17.29 (1.15) −0.02 (1.44) 0.014
 TMT A 64.89 (34.11) 3.00 (4.32, 51.4) 40.62 (11.00) 0.09 (0.90) 0.011
 TMT B 139.13 (79.20) 3.06 (6.45, 45.9) 90.34 (31.56) 0.12 (1.00) 0.049
 Digit span backward (number of digits) 3.61 (0.90)   4.42 (0.83)   0.002
 Formal lexical evocation 17.28 (7.42) −0.45 (1.09) 23.55 (7.11) 0.38 (1.09) 0.007
 Digit symbol (standard score/19) 8.18 (3.23)   11.69 (2.65)   NS
Instrumental function
 Praxis Symbolic gesture (score/5) 4.81 (0.46)   4.90 (0.41)   NS
Pantomime of tool use (score/10) 9.22 (1.03)   9.83 (0.38)   0.002
Imitation of meaningless gesture (score/8) 6.92 (1.44)   7.76 (0.69)   0.005
 Language DO80 77.61 (2.78) 0.39 (1.04) 79.62 (0.62) 0.95 (0.27) 0.022
Formal semantic evocation 25.00 (7.72) −0.88 (1.36) 37.38 (7.05) 0.69 (0.94) <0.001
 Visuoconstruction ROCF 31.44 (5.25) −1.95 (3.41, 32.4) 34.37 (1.82) 0.13 (0.68) NS
 Visuoperception (VOSP) Screening (score/20) 19.55 (1.09)   19.96 (0.20)   NS
Incomplete letters (score/20) 18.85 (1.66)   19.41 (0.80)   NS
Dot counting (score/10) 9.78 (0.55)   10.00 (0.00)   NS
Position discrimination (score/20) 19.05 (1.43)   18.73 (2.39)   NS
Number location (score/10) 8.47 (1.78)   9.46 (0.81)   0.047
Cube analysis (score/10) 9.47 (1.11)   9.71 (0.55)   NS
Social cognition
 Mini-SEA FPRT 11.40 (2.39) −1.20 (1.59) 12.73 (2.39) −0.32 (1.11) 0.026
Facial emotion recognition 12.12 (1.44) −0.44 (1.31) 12.44 (1.43) −0.15 (1.30) NS
 RME test   21.19 (4.95) −0.19 (1.23) 23.19 (3.61) 0.35 (0.88) 0.046
  1. Abbreviations: MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, FCSRT Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, IR immediate recall, FR free recall, TR total recall, DFR delayed free recall, DTR delayed total recall, DMS-48 Delayed Matching to Sample-48 items, FAB Frontal Assessment Battery, TMT Trail Making Test, DO80 Oral Denomination–80 items, ROCF Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test, VOSP Visual Object and Space Perception battery, Mini-SEA Mini-Social Cognition & Emotional Assessment, FPRT Faux Pas Recognition Test, RME Reading the Mind in the Eyes, NS Not significant
  2. Values are mean (SD, % of patients presenting with impairment with regard to normative data); raw scores or z-scores indicating impairment with regard to normative data are shown in boldface type
  3. aRaw scores: MMSE, digit span, FAB, digit span backward, digit symbol, praxis, VOSP; z-scores: FCSRT, DMS-48, TMT, formal lexical evocation, DO80, formal semantic evocation, ROCF, mini-SEA, RME test