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Table 2 Plasma biomarkers measured for each category reflecting neuropathological, vascular, and inflammatory implications

From: Identifying biomarkers of dementia prevalent among amnestic mild cognitively impaired ethnic female patients

Biomarker Type Regulation in AD References
40 Neuropathological Mehta et al., 2000 [45]
42 Neuropathological Craig-Schapiro et al., 2009 [56]
Total tau Neuropathological Sunderland et al., 2003 [64]
Phospho-tau Neuropathological Hampel and Teipel, 2004 [65]
Cystatin C Neuropathological Sundelof et al., 2008 [55]
Hu et al., 2012 [66]
C-reactive protein (CRP) Vascular Yasojima et al., 2000 [67]
Hu et al., 2012 [66]
Cortes-Canteli et al., 2012 [68]
Fibrinogen Vascular Hu et al., 2012 [66]
Plasminogen activator/inhibitor Vascular Oh et al., 2014 [60]
MCP-10 Inflammatory Galimberti et al., 2006 [69]
Eotaxin 1G Inflammatory Choi et al., 2008 [37]
YKL-40G Inflammatory Craig-Schapiro et al., 2010 [39]
Progranulin G Inflammatory D’Alton and Lewis, 2014 [70]
  1. Biomarkers were chosen based on preclinical and clinical relevance to AD. Arrows indicate changes in biomarkers suggested from referred literature
  2. AD Alzheimer’s disease