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Table 1 Drugs tested in the clinical trials included in the review and mechanisms of actions

From: Older patients are still under-represented in clinical trials of Alzheimer’s disease

Class and proposed mechanism of action Drug Studies
Anti-amyloid
 Reduced amyloid beta aggregation or oligomerization Tramiprosate (3APS) 3 phase III
 Increased amyloid beta clearance, active immunotherapy AN1792 1 phase II
  Sodium oligo-mannurarate 1 phase II, 1 phase III
 Increased amyloid beta clearance, passive immunotherapy Solanezumab 3 phase III
  Bapineuzumab 1 phase II, 4 phase III
  Gantenerumab 2 phase III
  BAN2401 1 phase II
  Crenezumab 1 phase II
  Aducanumab 2 phase III
  Immunoglobulin 1 phase II, 3 phase III
 Increased amyloid beta clearance, other Clioquinol (PBT-1) 1 phase II
 Reduced amyloid beta production, gamma secretase inhibitor Semagacestat 2 phase II, 2 phase III
 Reduced amyloid beta production, gamma secretase modulator Tarenflurbil 1 phase II, 2 phase III
 Reduced amyloid beta production, beta secretase inhibitor MK-8931 1 phase II/III, 1 phase III
  AZD3293 (LY3314814) 1 phase II/III
  E2609 1 phase II
 Glycation end products receptor (RAGE) inhibitors Azeliragon (TTP 488) 1 phase II, 1 phase III
 Reduced amyloid beta Nilvadipine 1 phase III
  Statins 1 phase II, 2 phase III
Anti-tau
 Aggregation inhibitor TRx0237 (formerly TRx0014) 1 phase II, 2 phase III
  Tideglusib 1 phase II
Modulators of blood glucose
  Insulins 4 phase II, 1 phase II/III
  Rosiglitazone 1 phase II, 3 phase III
  Pioglitazone 2 phase II
  AC 1204 2 phase II/III
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
 Phosphodiesterase 9A PF-04447943 1 phase II
  BI 409306 2 phase II
 Phosphodiesterase 5 Udenafil 1 phase III
 Phosphodiesterase 4 MK 0952 1 phase II
Histamine modulators
  GSK239512 1 phase II
  MK0249 1 phase II
  ABT 288 1 phase II
  Nizatidine 1 phase ?
  SAR110894D 1 phase II
  S38093 2 phase II
Nicotine modulators
 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist ABT-089 2 phase II
  RO5313534 1 phase II
  EVP-6124 1 phase II, 2 phase III
  Varenicline 1 phase II
  AZD3480 2 phase II
  AQW051 1 phase II
 α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulator ABT-126 3 phase II
Muscarine modulators
 Allosteric modulator MK 7622 1 phase II
 Allosteric modulator Lu25-109 1 study ?
 Non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist Talsaclidine 2 phase II
Serotonin modulators
 5-hydroxytryptamine 6 receptor antagonist SB 742457 4 phase II
  Lu AE58054 1 phase II, 2 phase III
  SAM-531 1 phase II
 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor agonist Xaliproden 2 phase III
  Palirodena 1 phase II
 5-hydroxytryptamine 1 receptor antagonist Lecozotan 1 phase II, 1 phase II/III
 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor agonist PRX-03140 2 phase II
Other central nervous system transmitter modulators
 Benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist AC-3933 1 phase II
 Norepinephrine uptake inhibitor Atomoxetine 1 phase II/III
 NMDA receptor channel blocker Neramexane 1 phase III
 Monoamine uptake inhibitor NS 2330 1 phase II
 Adrenergic receptor antagonist ORM-12741 1 phase II
 Irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor Rasagiline 1 phase II
 GABA(B) receptor antagonist SGS742 1 phase II
 Glutamate receptor modulator LY451395 1 phase II
Anti-inflammatory
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Aspirin 1 phase III
  Indomethacin 1 phase III
  Ibuprofen 1 phase ?
  Nimesulide 1 phase II
  Rofecoxib 1 phase II/III, 1 phase ?
  Celecoxib 1 phase III
  Lornoxicam 1 phase II
 Unknown mechanism Hydroxychloroquine 1 phase III
 Astrocyte activator ONO-2506PO 1 phase II
  PYM50028 1 phase II
Hormones and analogs
 Antiprogestinic Mifepristone 3 phase II
 Corticosteroid Prednisone 1 phase III
 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor ABT-384 1 phase II
 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog Leuprolide acetate 1 phase II
 Estrogen receptor modulator Raloxifene 1 phase II
  HRT 5 phase ?
 Androgen receptor modulator Dehydroepiandrosterone/testosterone 2 phase ?
 Growth hormone secretagogue MK0677 1 phase II
Other or several mechanisms
 c-kit (tyrosine kinase) inhibitor Masitinib 1 phase II, 1 phase III
  Dimebon 2 phase II, 5 phase III
  IFNβ-alpha 2a 1 phase II
  IFNβ1a 1 phase II
  N-acetylcysteine 1 phase II
  Acetyl-L-carnitine 1 phase ?
 Calcium antagonist MEM 1003 1 phase II
 Pleiotropic ST101 2 phase II
  Doxycycline and rifampin 1 phase II, 1 phase III
  Cerebrolysin 4 phase II, 1 phase III
 Somatostatin production enhancer FK962 1 phase II
 Unknown VI-1121 1 phase II
  Idebenone 1 phase ?, 1 phase III
  Sodium oligo-mannurate 1 phase II
  RO4601522 1 phase II
  T-817MA 1 phase II
  1. amechanism not fully elucidated