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Table 1 Clinical and demographic features of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies patients, Alzheimer’s disease at the mild cognitive impairment or prodromal stage, and healthy elderly control subjects

From: Grey matter atrophy in prodromal stage of dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease

  Pro-DLB (n = 28; 2 NCL, 26 SXB) Pro-AD (n = 27; 1 NCL, 26 SXB) HC (n = 33; 30 NCL, 3 SXB) Test statistic, P value Post hoc analysisa
Age, years, mean (SD) 67.5 (9.2) 69.3 (7.8) 72.4 (10.4) F = 2.189, P = 0.118  
Education,b 1/2/3 11/4/8 11/3/12 1/14/11 H = 2.116, P = 0.347  
Sex, F/M 16/12 7/20 18/15 χ2 = 6.726, P = 0.035c  
Handedness, R/L 26/2 24/3 29/4 χ2 = 1.558, P = 0.459  
MMSE score 27.6 (2.1) 26.9 (1.9) 29.4 (0.9) H = 31.897, P < 0.0001c HC > pro-AD and pro-DLB
TMTA,d impaired subjects 60.7 % 32.0 % 0 % H = 12.174, P < 0.002c HC > pro-DLB
TMTB,d impaired subjects 71.4 % 44.0 % 0 % H = 15.245, P < 0.0001c HC > pro-DLB
CDR Sum of Boxes, 0/0.5/1/2/3 2/26/0/0/0 1/26/0/0/0 33/0/0/0/0 H = 75.466, P < 0.0001c HC < pro-DLB and pro-AD
Parkinsonisme      
 Rigidity, 0/1/2/3/4 7/20/1/0/0 23/4/0/0/0 33/0/0/0/0 H = 44.388, P < 0.0001c Pro-DLB > HC and pro-AD
 Akinesia, 0/1/2/3/4 10/14/3/1/0 23/4/0/0/0 31/2/0/0/0 H = 29.156, P < 0.0001c Pro-DLB > HC and pro-AD
 Tremor at rest, 0/1/2/3/4 17/9/2/0/0 27/0/0/0/0 33/0/0/0/0 H = 19.360, P < 0.0001c Pro-DLB > HC and pro-AD
Hallucinations 60.7 % 0 % 0 % χ2 = 44.521, P < 0.0001c  
Fluctuations 92.9 % 0 % 0 % χ2 = 65.972, P < 0.0001c  
CAFb 3.5 (3.6) 0.0 (0) 0 (0) H = 34.872, P < 0.0001c Pro-DLB > HC and pro-AD
RBD 56.0 % 7.7 % 0 % H = 31.696, P < 0.0001c Pro-DLB > HC and pro-AD
Treatment      
 ChEI 28.6 % 48.1 % 0.0 % χ2 = 18.253, P < 0.0001c  
 Dopa 28.6 % 0.0 % 0.0 % χ2 = 19.274, P < 0.0001c  
 NL 10.7 % 0.0 % 0.0 % χ2 = 6.793, P = 0.033c  
CSF, mean (SD), number of subjects      
 Aβ1–42 859.3 (336.7) n = 23 579.0 (287.4), n = 23 F = 5.345, P = 0.008c Pro-DLB > pro-AD
 Phospho-tau 43.6 (13.9), n = 23 93.7 (36.8), n = 23 F = 18.805, P < 0.0001c Pro-DLB < pro-AD
 Tau 313.0 (286.3), n = 23 660.6 (355.4), n = 23 F = 6.895, P = 0.002c Pro-DLB < pro-AD
Hippocampal atrophy,f 0/1/2/3/4      
 Left hippocampus 14/10/2/2/0 5/16/4/2/0 27/5/1/0/0 H = 23.992, P < 0.0001c HC < pro-AD and pro-DLB
 Right Hippocampus 14/10/4/0/0 5/14/7/1/0 22/8/2/1/0 H = 13.591, P < 0.001c Pro-AD < HC and pro-DLB
  1. Abbreviations: Aβ 1–42 amyloid-β1–42, CAF Clinician Assessment of Fluctuation, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, ChEI cholinesterase inhibitor, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, Dopa levodopa or dopaminergic agonists, HC healthy elderly control subjects, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, NCL old age psychiatry, geriatric medicine or neurology services from Newcastle upon Tyne, NL neuroleptic, pro-AD prodromal Alzheimer’s disease, pro-DLB prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies, RBD rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, SXB tertiary memory clinic of Strasbourg, TMT Trail Making Test
  2. aTukey’s post hoc test for analysis of variance (F), Mann-Whitney post hoc test in IBM SPSS software (H)
  3. bEducation level: 1 = before high school, 2 = high school, 3 = university
  4. cStatistically significant value
  5. dpercentage of patients with test failure according to the normative data of Tombaugh, 2004 [30]
  6. eAs rated on Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [28]
  7. fAccording to Scheltens et al. [31]