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Table 3 Changes in mortality among people with dementia

From: Recent global trends in the prevalence and incidence of dementia, and survival with dementia

Study, setting, age range Outcomes Change in mortality and/or mortality hazard ratio Period Interval (years) Other findings/notes
Directly observed
 1. United States, HRS [21] Mortality hazard ratio Non-significant increase, from HR 2.53 to 3.11, p = 0.09 1993–2002 9 years No report of absolute mortality rates, stratified or unstratified. However, given a presumed decline in overall mortality, it seems likely that mortality also declined among people with dementia, but to a slightly lesser extent
 2. Stockholm, Sweden [29] Mortality hazard ratio Stable HR: 2.42 (2.03–2.87) vs. 2.47 (2.03–3.00) 1988–2002 14 years Secular trend similar (30 % reduction in mortality) to that for those with no dementia, and for both sexes
Mortality rate among people with dementia 29 % reduction in mortality (HR 0.71, 95 % CI 0.57–0.88) adjusted for age, sex, education and MMSE score
 3. Germany, insurance claims data, 65 years and older [32] Mortality rate among people with dementia 20 % increase in mortality among women with dementia (p < 0.0001)
Non-significant 11 % increase in mortality among men with dementia (p = 0.75)
2004–2007 3 years Mortality among women without dementia remained constant over the two cohorts, while there was a non-significant 4 % decline in mortality rates among men without dementia. These findings would suggest an increase in the mortality hazard ratio associated with dementia, greater for women than for men.
Inferred
 4. Indianapolis, IN, USA, African Americans, 65 years and older [31, 36] Dementia duration Increase in survival with dementia can be inferred from stable prevalence of dementia [31], but 55 % fall in incidence [36] 1991–2002 11 years Extrapolation from reported prevalence and incidence rates at the two time points suggests that survival time with dementia is 2.4 times longer for the second cohort.
  1. MMSE Mini Mental State Examination