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Table 3 Factors affecting the long-term outcome with MMSE or ADAS-cog score as dependent variables

From: Mild versus moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease: three-year outcomes in a routine clinical setting of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy

  MMSE ADAS-cog
Significant predictors in final mixed modelsa β 95 % CI p β 95 % CI p
Percentage of variance accounted for, all fixed terms 38.5 %, p <0.001   47.8 %, p <0.001  
Fixed terms       
 Intercept −0.936 −6.009, 4.137 0.717 21.058 8.622, 33.493 0.001
 Time in months from baseline −0.887 −1.264, −0.509 <0.001 −0.215 −0.651, 0.221 0.333
 Baseline assessment score 0.937 0.760, 1.114 <0.001 0.636 0.508, 0.765 <0.001
 Time in months × baseline assessment score 0.016 0.002, 0.030 0.030 0.015 0.005, 0.025 0.003
Background variables       
 Solitary living (no = 0, yes = 1)    ns 2.882 0.887, 4.877 0.005
 NSAIDs/acetylsalicylic acid (no = 0, yes = 1)    ns −2.368 −4.353, −0.383 0.020
 Antipsychotics (no = 0, yes = 1) −1.985 −3.346, −0.625 0.004    ns
 Education (years)    ns −0.374 −0.865, 0.118 0.136
 Time in months × education (years)    ns 0.048 0.008, 0.089 0.020
 Age at first assessment (years) 0.057 0.006, 0.109 0.030 −0.160 −0.288, −0.033 0.014
 Time in months × age 0.005 0.001, 0.009 0.016    ns
 IADL score at baseline −0.078 −0.156, −0.001 0.048 0.241 0.043, 0.439 0.017
 ChEI doseb    ns −0.057 −0.105, −0.010 0.018
Random terms (variance)       
 Intercept 4.671 3.445, 6.334 <0.001 11.382 5.851, 22.143 0.003
 Time in months 0.029 0.021, 0.040 <0.001 0.174 0.128, 0.237 <0.001
  1. Sex, apolipoprotein E genotype, age at onset, Physical Self-Maintenance Scale score at baseline, number of medications and the other specific concomitant medications used at baseline, as well as the variable comparing the ChEI agents, were not significant predictors in the models. β values were unstandardized and are expressed per 1 unit increase for continuous variables and for the condition present in dichotomous variables
  2. aBaseline assessment score = MMSE or ADAS-cog, respectively
  3. bMean percentage of the maximum recommended dose; that is, 10 mg for donepezil, 12 mg for rivastigmine, and 24 mg for galantamine
  4. ADAS-cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale—cognitive subscale, ChEI cholinesterase inhibitors, CI confidence interval, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, ns not significant, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug