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Table 2 Changes in cognitive and functional abilities during 3 years of ChEI therapy in patients with moderate AD

From: Mild versus moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease: three-year outcomes in a routine clinical setting of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy

Variable 2 months (n = 273) 6 months (n = 250) 12 months (n = 214) 18 months (n = 169) 24 months (n = 140) 30 months (n = 96) 36 months (n = 78)
Completion rate (%) 95.1 87.1 74.6 58.9 48.8 33.4 27.2
MMSE scorea 18.2 (17.7, 18.6) 17.4 (16.8, 18.0) 15.8 (15.1, 16.4) 14.7 (13.8, 15.5) 13.9 (12.9, 14.9) 13.7 (12.5, 14.9) 12.8 (11.5, 14.1)
ADAS-cog score (0–70)a   28.8 (27.5, 30.2) 32.3 (30.6, 34.0) 35.0 (32.8, 37.1) 35.9 (33.3, 38.5) 36.4 (33.2, 39.5) 39.4 (35.7, 43.1)
IADL scorea   20.6 (20.0, 21.2) 22.3 (21.6, 22.9) 23.4 (22.6, 24.1) 24.3 (23.6, 25.0) 25.1 (24.3, 25.8) 26.2 (25.5, 27.0)
PSMS scorea   9.1 (8.6, 9.5) 9.8 (9.3, 10.3) 10.5 (9.9, 11.2) 10.8 (10.2, 11.4) 11.6 (10.8, 12.4) 12.6 (11.6, 13.6)
MMSE score, change from baselinea 1.77 (1.40, 2.14) 1.01 (0.52, 1.50) −0.60 (−1.18, −0.02) −1.79 (−2.58, −1.01) −2.82 (−3.73, −1.92) −3.20 (−4.29, −2.11) −4.03 (−5.22, −2.83)
ADAS-cog score (0–70), change from baselinea   −0.14 (−1.19, 0.90) −3.85 (−5.13, −2.57) −6.56 (−8.26, −4.86) −8.18 (−10.14, −6.23) −9.52 (−11.98, −7.06) −13.22 (−16.16, −10.28)
IADL score, change from baselinea   −1.48 (−1.89, −1.07) −3.17 (−3.66, −2.67) −4.09 (−4.73, −3.46) −5.31 (−6.09, −4.52) −6.19 (−7.23, −5.15) −7.50 (−8.71, −6.30)
PSMS score, change from baselinea   −0.81 (−1.11, −0.51) −1.74 (−2.13, −1.36) −2.48 (−3.02, −1.94) −2.99 (−3.53, −2.45) −3.79 (−4.55, −3.04) −4.85 (−5.83, −3.88)
MMSE score, improved/unchanged patients (%) 74.5 66.4 51.5 45.2 32.8 36.7 28.9
ADAS-cog score (0–70), improved/unchanged patients (%)   53.4 37.6 29.9 23.6 16.9 10.9
IADL score, improved/unchanged patients (%)   46.0 23.3 17.2 14.7 9.2 8.1
PSMS score, improved/unchanged patients (%)   62.4 45.5 34.9 23.3 21.8 17.6
  1. For clarity, clinical improvements for all scales have been tabulated as positive changes from the start of ChEI therapy (baseline)
  2. aMean (95 % confidence interval)
  3. AD Alzheimer’s disease, ADAS-cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, ChEI cholinesterase inhibitor, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, PSMS Physical Self-Maintenance Scale