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Table 3 Baseline characteristics and CSF biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment

From: Cerebrospinal fluid VILIP-1 and YKL-40, candidate biomarkers to diagnose, predict and monitor Alzheimer’s disease in a memory clinic cohort

  sMCI MCI-AD
(n = 17) (n = 36)
Age (years) 64 (2) 70 (1)*
Sex, female 6 (35 %) 13 (36 %)
MMSE (range 0–30)a 28 (0.6) 26 (0.4)*
Aβ42 579 (493–814) 410 (322–507)**
tau 274 (212–418) 739 (463–950)**
ptau-181 47 (40–79) 90 (65–124)**
YKL-40 (ng/ml), baseline 242 (31) 327 (19)*
YKL-40 (ng/ml), follow-up 247 (23) 363 (22)*
 Annual change, (β(SE)) 10.2 (6.4) 10.1 (3.1)
VILIP-1 (pg/ml), baseline 136 (25) 233 (17) **
VILIP-1 (pg/ml), follow-up 167 (20) 256 (19)**
 Annual change, (β(SE)) 16.4 (6.1)§ 12.0 (3.0)
  1. Data presented as mean (SE) or number (percentage). At baseline VILIP-1 data were missing for two patients and YKL-40 for one patient. Fisher’s exact test or ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni corrections was used when applicable. CSF biomarkers were log-transformed for ANOVA analyses. Longitudinal effects were assessed using age and sex-adjusted linear mixed models, with CSF biomarkers (VILIP-1 and YKL-40) as dependent variables and clinical diagnosis (sMCI vs. MCI-AD), time (LP interval in years), and interaction diagnosis × time as independent variables. The reported β value represents the estimated change of YKL-40 (ng/ml) or VILIP-1 (pg/ml) levels per year
  2. aBaseline MMSE was available for 52 patients
  3. * p ≤0.05 vs. sMCI
  4. ** p ≤0.005 vs. sMCI
  5. p ≤0.005 for time effect
  6. § p ≤0.05 for time effect
  7. Aβ42 amyloid beta 1–42, ANOVA analysis of variance, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, LP lumbar puncture, MCI-AD mild cognitive impairment progressing to Alzheimer’s disease, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, ptau-181 tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, sMCI stable mild cognitive impairment, SE standard error, tau total tau, VILIP-1 Visinin-like protein-1, YKL-40 Chitinase-3-like protein 1