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Table 1 Patient baseline characteristics and CSF biomarkers in diagnostic groups

From: Cerebrospinal fluid VILIP-1 and YKL-40, candidate biomarkers to diagnose, predict and monitor Alzheimer’s disease in a memory clinic cohort

  Cognitively normal MCI AD
(n = 37) (n = 61) (n = 65)
Age (years) 64 (2) 68 (1)* 65 (1)
Sex, female 14 (38 %) 23 (38 %) 29 (45 %)
MMSE at baseline (range 0–30)a 28 (0.3) 27 (0.3)* 22 (0.7)†,‡
APOE genotype, ε4 carrierb 15 (42 %) 33 (57 %) 45 (70 %)*
Follow-up time (years) 2.4 (0.2) 2.0 (0.1) 1.9 (0.1)
CSF biomarkers    
 Aβ42 (pg/ml) 741 (44) 530 (32) 412 (18)†,‡
 tau (pg/ml) 349 (38) 606 (64) 688 (44)
 ptau-181 (pg/ml) 54 (4) 78 (6) 86 (4)
  1. Data presented as mean (standard error) or number (percentage). Fisher’s exact test or ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni corrections were used when applicable. CSF biomarkers were log-transformed for ANOVA analyses
  2. aBaseline MMSE (with 30 indicative of perfect performance) was available for 160 patients, and follow-up MMSE was available for 148 patients; the cognitive follow-up period was (mean (standard error) 3.8 (0.2) years)
  3. b APOE genotype data were available for 36 cognitively normal individuals, 58 MCI patients, and 64 AD patients (total 158)
  4. * p ≤ 0.05 vs. cognitively normal
  5. p ≤ 0.005 vs. cognitively normal
  6. p ≤ 0.005 vs. MCI
  7. Aβ42 amyloid beta 1–42, AD Alzheimer’s disease, ANOVA analysis of variance, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, ptau-181 tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, tau total tau