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Table 1 Selected immune function markers expressed by human microglia

From: Immune phenotypes of microglia in human neurodegenerative disease: challenges to detecting microglial polarization in human brains

Designation (references) M1 M2 AD brains
CD14 [15, 16] ++ Vessels and around plaques
CD16, CD32, CD64 [13, 38] Uncertain ++ Increased on phagocytic microglia
CD45 [39, 40] ++ + All microglia: increase in disease
CD11b [49] Uncertain Uncertain Most microglia: increase in disease
CD68 [20] Uncertain Uncertain Increased on plaque microglia
CD163 [22] ++ M2c: vessel-associated microglia
CD206 [34] mRNA perivascular macrophages  
CD209 [21] ++ M2a: MS lesion-associated microglia
CCL22 [21] ++ M2a: MS lesion-associated microglia
CD36 [18] Uncertain ++ Phagocytic microglia
Cyclooxygenase-1 [43] ++ Plaque-associated microglia
TLR-2 [15] ++ + Plaque-associated microglia
Ferritin [41] ++ Uncertain Pathology-associated microglia
TREM2 [46] + Plaque-associated microglia
CD33 [45] + Increased expression in AD
CSF-1R [23] Uncertain Uncertain Increased expression in AD
  1. There is uncertainty about the assignment of the protein markers to M1 or M2. These are based on the authors’ interpretation of different literature including data from in vitro experiments. – to ++, observed changes in microglia in brain samples. Assignment based on in vitro findings. M2 includes M2a, M2b and M2c
  2. AD Alzheimer’s disease, CSF-1R colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor, MS multiple sclerosis, TLR Toll-like receptor, TREM-2 triggering receptor expressed by myeloid cells-2