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Table 3 Summary of key studies on electrophysiological profiles of human induced neuronal cells

From: Connectivity and circuitry in a dish versus in a brain

  Ambasudhan and colleagues, 2011 [97] Caiazzo and colleagues, 2011 [119] Pang and colleagues, 2011 [99] Pfisterer and colleagues, 2011a [100] Pfisterer and colleagues, 2011b [100] Son and colleagues, 2011 [149]   Yoo and colleagues, 2011 [101] Koppensteiner and colleagues, 2014 [108]
Method hiN hiN miN hiN hiN hiN hiN hiN hiN hiN hiN hiN hiN miN hiN hiN hiN hiN
Age of fibroblast donor Neonatal Adult Embryonic >40 years Fetal Fetal Neonatal 11 years Embryonic Fetal Fetal Embryonic Adult Embryonic Embryonic Neonatal 30 years Adult
Number of cell lines 2 2 1 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1
Viral factors Brn2, Myt1l, miR-124 Ascl1, Nurr1, Lmx1a BAM + NeuroD1 BAM + Lmx1a + FoxA2 BAM BAM BAM + four factors BAM + five factors miR-9/9*, miR-124, DAM BAM + Zic1
Conversion efficiency (%) 4 to 8 1.5 to 11 2 3 to 5 2 to 4 2 to 4 2 to 4 NQ 5 10 13 16 1 to 4 NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ
DIV 25 to 30 30 16 18 14 to 25 34 to 35 28 to 35 21 30 to 32 30 to 32 30 to 32 30 to 32 23 to 34 NQ NQ 35 to 56 35 to 56 21 to 28
AP firing (% of cells) 81 12 NQ NQ 21 100 79 NQ 86 83 79 91 47 90 NQ 85 60 63
Single (%) NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ 62
Repetitive (%) 20 NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ 77 56 7
Spontaneous AP (%) 15 NQ 81 NQ 2 0 3.0 NQ 29 0 NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ 10 NQ 0
n 29 25 16 8 42 5 29 NQ 7 6 14 12 60 10 NQ 27 15 27
Rin (MΩ) 405.0 1,067.0 1,100.0 NQ 1,770.0 1,110.0 1,500.0 x 157.0 152.0 966.0 843.0 x NQ NQ 2,600.0 2,800.0 1,060.0
Cm (pF) 30.5 35.9 10.6 NQ 16.0 25.1 23.0 x NQ NQ NQ NQ x NQ NQ 16.3 22.9 33.3
τ (milliseconds) NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ NQ x NQ NQ NQ NQ x NQ NQ NQ NQ 35.4
RMP (mV) −45.0 x −41.8 NQ −52.1 −59.5 −41.0 x −45.3 −41.6 −62.4 −58.6 x −49.5 NQ −42.0 −31.4 −42.1
n 21 21 16 8 52 21 29 x 7 6 14 12 x 6 NQ 27 15 27
Spontaneous activity (%) 25 43 x x 0 19 33 x x x x x x x x 71 84 0
Evoked potential (%) x x x x 0 14 0 x x x x x x x x 45 47 0
n 8 7 x x 20 21 6 x x x x x x x x 12 to 14 10 to 12 9 to 57
Co-culture x x x x Mouse cortical neurons x x x x x x x x Mouse glial cells x    
  1. Note the more immature electrophysiological properties of neurons converted from adult somatic cells compared with those converted from fetal or neonatal tissues. AP, action potential; BAM, Brn2, Ascl1, Myt1l; DAM, NeuroD2, Ascl1, Myt1l; Cm, membrane capacitance; DIV, days in vitro; five factors, Lhx3, Hb9, Isl1, Ngn2, NeuroD1; four factors, Lhx3, Hb9, Isl1, Ngn2; hiN, human induced neuronal; miN, mouse induced neuronal; NQ, not quantified; Rin, input resistance; RMP, resting membrane potential; τ, membrane time constant; x, not measured, used or stated