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Table 1 Analysis of immune changes in human post-mortem tissue

From: Post-mortem analysis of neuroinflammatory changes in human Alzheimer’s disease

Human post-mortem tissue - Genetic heterogeneity
- Age and gender
- Agonal status
- Co-morbidities
- Cause of death
- Post-mortem interval
Techniques  
Fixed tissue - Immunohistochemistry
Bright-field microscopy [23,49,60]
Fluorescent microscopy [23,49,60]
Combination of different markers [23,49,60]
Frozen tissue - Genomics [39]
- Proteomics [74]
- RNA/DNA analysis [38,75,76]
- Primary culture [73]
- Flow cytometry [73]
Assessment  
Qualitative - Cell type
- Cell morphology
Quantitative - Semi-quantitative rating system
- Number of cells per area or volume unit
- Protein load (percentage)
Immune functions  
Inflammatory profile - Pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines
- CD14, CD40, major histocompatibility complex II, arginase 1, chitinase, and TREM2
Phagocytosis - Scavenger receptors (CD68 and CD36), TREM2, FcγRs CD14/TLR4, and phosphatidylserine receptors
Proliferation - Ki67, PCNA, and phospho-histone H3
Immune cell infiltration - Monocytes
CCR2 combined with CX3CR1
CD45, LyC6, and CD11c
- T cells
CD4 (T helper)
CD8 (T cytotoxic/suppressor)