Skip to main content

Table 2 Neuroimaging and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

From: Lung disease as a determinant of cognitive decline and dementia

Study design Population Cognitive measures Imaging Conclusions/comments Reference
Case control 6 severe COPD NPT MRI SCOPD worse language, executive and visuo-spatial COPD smoked more and increased previous diabetes. No difference in brain volumes. SCOPD frontoparietal and periventricular white matter hyperintensities. Small differences? smoking related [85]
13 moderate COPD T1
12 cognitive normal Diffusion
? non-hypoxaemic
Case control 25 stable COPD versus 25 controls NPT MRI COPD worse MMSE, visual reproduction, figure memory test. COPD reduced GM volume. In COPD some regions correlated with oxygenation and regional GM volume was negatively correlated with disease duration. GM volume in inferior triangular frontal cortex in COPD correlated with picture memory score [74]
T1 and VBM
Case control/longitudinal Rotterdam study N = 165 COPD - MRI susceptibility weighted imaging COPD greater CMBs at baseline independent of risk factors, including medications such as anti-thrombotics. COPD odds ratio 7.1 of developing deep/paratentorial CMB [55]
N = 645 controls
Case control N = 37 mild to moderate COPD MMSE MRI The hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in COPD. It positively correlated with MMSE score, oxygen saturation in mild to moderate COPD patients, and levels of blood oxygen in both mild to moderate and severe COPD patients [73]
N = 31 controls
Case control 25 stable non-hypoxaemic NPT MRI volumes, DTI, rfMRI No age-related atrophy, reduced white matter integrity and increased resting state activation, whiter matter damage widespread and independent of traditional vascular risk measures, may account for cognitive impairment [56]
25 controls
Case control N = 25 stable MMSE MRI, DTI Reduced GM density and increased fractional anisotropic values in COPD. Possible correlations with oxygen levels, visual tasks and disease duration. But small numbers, weak correlations [78]
N = 25 controls
Case control 9 controls NPT MRI volumes COPD had worse global cognition, memory, mood, but no difference in brain volumes or spectroscopy. Controlled for age gender and education [76]
18 COPD (9 oxygen-dependent)
Cross-section non-demented elderly community cohort (N = 1,077) Age 60–90 years - MRI COPD diagnosis had more severe periventricular white matter lesions. But COPD and oxygen not associated with subcortical white matter lesions or lacunar infarcts. Low oxygen saturations independently associated with more severe periventricular white matter lesions [75]
Adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, DM, BMI, pack years, cholesterol, Hb, MI, LVH.
  1. BMI, body mass index; CMB, cerebral microbleed; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; GM, grey matter; Hb, haemoglobin; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; MI, myocardial infarction; MMSE, mini mental test examination; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NPT, neuropsychological test; rfMRI, resting-state functional MRI; SCOPD, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; VBM, voxel-based morphometry.