Skip to main content

Table 3 Studies investigating specific instrumental activities of daily living domains a

From: Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review

Author Year MCI criteria Number of subjects Mean age, yr (SD) Mean MMSE score (SD) IADL measures Results and effect sizes (Cohen’s d )
Financial capacity: performance-based instruments
Griffith et al. [26] 2003 Petersen 21 MCI MCI 68.1 (8.8) MCI 28.4 (1.2) FCI NC > MCI > AD; MCI versus NC: d = 1.14, MCI versus AD d = 1.21
CDR 0.5 21 NC NC 66.7 (7.2) NC 29.3 (1.0)
22 AD AD 71.5 (9.2), ns AD 24.1 (2.6)
Sherod et al. [30] 2009 Petersen 113 MCI MCI 70.3 (7.4) MCI 28.1 (1.9) FCI NC > MCI > AD; MCI versus NC: d = 1.03, MCI versus AD: d = 0.87
1.5 SD below 85 NC NC 67.2 (8.2) NC 29.4 (0.9)
43 AD AD 73.8 (8.5) AD 24.6 (2.9)
all significant
Triebel et al. [32] 2009 Petersen 87 MCI ADcon 74.4 (6.0) ADcon 27.0 (1.9) FCI NC > MCI; ADnon versus NC: d = 0.83, ADcon versus NC: d = 1.83
1.5 SD below (25 ADcon, 62 ADnon) ADnon 68.5 (7.5) ADnon 28.6 (1.4)
76 NC NC 66.7 (8.5) NC 29.4 (1.0)
Management of everyday technology: performance-based instruments
Malinowsky et al. [53] 2010 Petersen 33 MCI MCI 70.5 (8.4) MCI 27.5 (1.9) META NC > MCI > AD, MCI versus NC: d = 0.66, MCI versus AD: d = 1.23
45 NC NC 73.2 (9.7) NC 29.3 (1.1)
38 AD AD 75.3 (9.1) AD 23.5 (3.3)
Malinowsky et al. [38] 2012 Petersen/Winblad 33 MCI MCI 70.8 (8.6) MCI 27.5 (1.9) META NC > AD, MCI = NC
42 NC NC 72.6 (9.7) NC 29.4 (1.0)
35 AD AD 75.5 (9.2) AD 23.5 (3.4)
ns
Management of everyday technology: informant-report rating instruments
Munoz-Neira et al. [54] 2012 Winblad 21 MCI MCI 71.3 (9.1) MCI 26.1 (2.5) T-ADLQ Total score: NC > MCI > AD, MCI versus NC: d = 0.62, MCI versus AD: d = 1.47
Subscales: NC > MCI on 2 subscales: employment and recreation: d = 0.54, travel: d = 0.55
44 NC NC 74.1 (7.3) NC 27.8 (2.3)
63 AD AD 73.9 (8.7) AD 17.9 (5.8)
Management of everyday technology: self-report rating instruments
Nygård et al. [55] 2011 Petersen/Winblad 37 MCI MCI 67.0 (7.47) MCI 27.5 (2.1) ETUQ (support of proxy possible for patients with AD and MCI) Perceived relevance of ET: NC > MCI > AD; MCI versus NC: d = 0.51, MCI versus AD: d = 1.26
44 NC NC 69.0 (9.58) NC 29.1 (1.1)
37 AD AD 72.0 (8.92) AD 25.4 (2.8)
ns ns Perceived difficulty of ET: NC < MCI < AD; MCI versus NC: d = 0.82, MCI versus AD: d = 1.26
Rosenberg et al. [56] 2009 Petersen 30 MCI MCI 74.0 (6.9) MCI 27.0 (2.4) ETUQ (support of proxy possible for patients with AD and MCI) Perceived relevance of ET: NC > MCI = AD; MCI versus NC: d = 1.66
93 NC NC 74.0 (7.6) NC 28.0 (1.7) Perceived difficulty of ET: NC < MCI < AD; MCI versus NC: d = 0.59, MCI versus AD: d = 1.00
34 AD AD 73.0 (8.4) AD 24.0 (3.3)
ns
Driving capacity: performance-based instruments
Wadley et al. [51] 2009 Petersen 46 MCI MCI 71.3 (7.8) Not reported UAB-DA MCI < NC, d = 0.46
59 NC NC 67.1 (6.7)
significant
Driving capacity: self-report rating instruments
O’Connor et al. [59] 2010 Petersen/Winblad 304 MCI MCI 76.8 (6.5) Not reported DHQ (aMCI = naMCI = mdMCI) < NC (driving frequency, driving difficulty, driving space) differed at baseline and faster rates of decline
Driving frequency: aMCI versus NC: d = 0.31, naMCI versus NC: d = 0.24, mdMCI versus NC: d = 0.14
Driving difficulty: aMCI versus NC: d = 0.35, naMCI versus NC: d = 0.36, mdMCI versus NC: d = 0.45
Driving space: aMCI versus NC: d = 0.42, naMCI versus NC: d = 0.51, mdMCI versus NC: d = 0.43
1.5 SD below (82 aMCI NC 72.6 (5.3)
140 naMCI significant
82 mdMCI)
2,051 NC
Shopping capacity: performance-based instruments
Werner et al. [52] 2009 Petersen 30 MCI MCI 69.3 (7.4) MCI 27.5 (1.3) VAPS MCI < NC; significant subscales: distance d = 0.29, trajectory duration: d = 1.16, duration of pauses: d = 0.89
30 NC NC 69.6 (7.3) NC 29.4 (0.7)
ns significant
  1. aAD, Alzheimer’s disease; ADcon, Converters to Alzheimer’s disease; ADnon, Nonconverters to Alzheimer’s disease; aMCI, Amnestic mild cognitive impairment, both single and multiple domains; CDR, Clinical dementia rating; DHQ, Driving Habits Questionnaire; ETUQ, Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire; FCI, Financial Capacity Instrument; MCI, Mild cognitive impairment; mdMCI, Multiple-domain mild cognitive impairment; NC, Normal control; ns, Nonsignificant; UAB-DA, University of Alabama at Birmingham Driving Assessment; VAPS, Virtual Action Planning Supermarket.