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Table 4 Significant brain monoaminergic correlates of NPS in DLB and AD

From: The monoaminergic footprint of depression and psychosis in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to Alzheimer’s disease

Study group Brain region MA and MT or ratio NPS feature Spearman’s Rank Order correlation statistics
DLB patients     
Number = 10
  BA10 DA (ng/g tissue) CMAI cluster 3 R = +0.841, P = 0.002, number = 10
verbal agitation
  hippocampus DA (ng/g tissue) Behave-AD cluster AB R= +0.928, P= 0.0001, number = 10
psychosis
   DA (ng/g tissue) Behave-AD total score R = +0.825, P = 0.003, number = 10
  thalamus DA (ng/g tissue) CSDD total scores R = +0.839, P = 0.002, number = 10
depression
   HVA/DA ratio CSDD total scores R = −0.851, P = 0.002, number = 10
depression
  BA22 DA (ng/g tissue) CMAI total score R = +0.827, P = 0.003, number = 10
agitation
  cerebellum DOPAC/DA ratio Behave-AD cluster F R = −0.846, P = 0.002, number = 10
affective disturbances
AD patients     
Number = 20
  amygdala DA (ng/g tissue) Behave-AD cluster AB R= −0.728, P= 0.0009, number = 17
psychosis
   HVA/DA ratio Behave-AD cluster AB R= +0.766, P= 0.0003, number = 17
psychosis
   HVA/DA ratio CMAI cluster 3 R= +0.786, P= 0.0002, number = 17
verbal agitation
   HVA/DA ratio CMAI total score R = +0.671, P = 0.003, number = 17
agitation
  hippocampus HVA/5-HIAA ratio Behave-AD cluster C R = +0.659, P = 0.002, number = 19
activity disturbances
  BA17 HVA/DA ratio Behave-AD cluster F R = −0.670, P = 0.002, number = 19
affective disturbances
   DA (ng/g tissue) CSDD total scores R = +0.662, P = 0.002, number = 19
depression
  LC MHPG/NA ratio Behave-AD cluster D R = +0.727, P = 0.001, number = 16
agitation and aggression
  1. Significant correlations between NPS and neurochemical data in postmortem brain tissue samples of DLB and AD patients as indicated by Spearman’s Rank Order correlation statistics (correlation coefficient (R), P value and sample size (n)). Only correlations remaining statistically significant following Bonferroni correction are displayed above (P <0.0033). The four most significant correlations (P <0.001) are shown in bold. 5-HIAA, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid; AD, Alzheimer’s disease; BA, Brodmann area; Behave-AD, Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale; CMAI, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory; CSDD, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia; DA, dopamine; DLB, dementia with Lewy bodies; DOPAC, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; HVA, homovanillic acid; LC, locus coeruleus; MA and MT, monoamines and metabolites; MFS, Middelheim Frontality Score; MHPG, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol; NA, noradrenaline; NPS, neuropsychiatric symptoms.