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Table 3 Focus psychosis: comparison of the brain monoamine levels between AD + D + P, AD + D-P, DLB + D + P and DLB + D-P

From: The monoaminergic footprint of depression and psychosis in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to Alzheimer’s disease

Brain region MA and MT or ratio AD + D + P (number = 5) AD + D-P (number = 5) DLB + D + P (number = 5) DLB + D-P (number = 5)
BA9 HVA (ng/g) 146.6 (85.1-198.0); n = 4 127.2 (117.8-152.5); n = 5b 110.7 (81.8-156.2); n = 5 51.5 (44.1-73.0); n = 5b
  5-HT (ng/g) 5.3 (3.3-15.8); n = 4 14.1 (8.7-76.8); n = 5b, d 4.2 (1.7-5.2); n = 5d 3.4 (2.6-3.5); n = 5b
BA10 5-HIAA (ng/g) 227.6 (99.6-331.1); n = 5 250.9 (169.7-441.7); n = 5d 70.0 (56.1-128.9); n = 5d 87.7 (63.2-180.0); n = 5
  HVA (ng/g) 111.3 (84.7-131.7); n = 5c 117.9 (95.0-139.2); n = 5b 62.1 (59.2-104.8); n = 5 45.0 (31.9-54.4); n = 5c, b
  5-HT (ng/g) 16.0 (10.4-35.8); n = 5a, c 16.1 (10.8-161.0); n = 5b, d 4.6 (1.6-5.6); n = 5a, d 4.1 (2.9-6.0); n = 5c, b
BA24 HVA (ng/g) 212.8 (163.4-265.0); n = 5 216.2 (185.3-263.1); n = 5b 167.7 (131.2-206.1); n = 5 102.9 (79.6-140.2); n = 5b
  5-HT (ng/g) 32.2 (29.3-48.7); n = 5 47.0 (39.4-165.6); n = 5d 18.9 (7.1-24.6); n = 5d 22.0 (14.9-32.0); n = 5
Hippocampus MHPG (ng/g) 459.5 (224.9-1,000.7); n = 5 1,078.1 (850.3-1,099.3); n = 5d 358.9 (171.2-569.5); n = 5d 383.1 (318.3-570.7); n = 5
  HVA (ng/g) 193.9 (146.5-462.3); n = 5 245.6 (174.4-284.7); n = 5b 143.3 (114.4-250.4); n = 5 116.9 (106.4-138.6); n = 5b
Thalamus MHPG (ng/g) 793.0 (678.3-1,344.8); n = 5 1,342.5 (1,273.7-1,860.6); n = 5b, d 245.5 (143.1-569.9); n = 5d 251.6 (164.9-697.1); n = 5b
  DA (ng/g) 17.0 (7.1-22.7); n = 5 11.1 (9.3-857.5); n = 5b 1.1 (1.0-5.3); n = 5 1.7 (0.8-5.6); n = 5b
  HVA/DA 32.0 (25.5-53.1); n = 5 30.1 (5.7-42.4); n = 5d 230.5 (146.2-382.8); n = 5d 137.7 (26.5-439.3); n = 5
BA22 5-HIAA (ng/g) 756.7 (241.2-1,147.4); n = 5 450.2 (332.4-507.9); n = 5b 64.0 (44.1-162.6); n = 5 81.3 (49.0-158.8); n = 5b
  HVA (ng/g) 181.7 (135.6-218.4); n = 5a, c 129.5 (80.6-178.2); n = 5 72.0 (61.0-104.0); n = 5a 50.8 (31.3-69.5); n = 5c
BA17 5-HIAA (ng/g) 138.3 (93.9-189.9); n = 4 143.6 (98.1-215.2); n = 5d 43.1 (22.4-60.3); n = 5d 54.7 (38.4-110.8); n = 5
  5-HT (ng/g) 9.8 (4.2-19.5); n = 4 14.5 (7.4-26.8); n = 5b 2.5 (1.6-5.2); n = 5 3.5 (2.5-5.9); n = 5b
Locus coeruleus DA (ng/g) 32.3 (20.2-132.4); n = 5c 52.5 (33.0-102.5); n = 4 21.1 (12.0-42.1); n = 5 12.1 (6.5-16.5); n = 5c
  HVA (ng/g) 1,361.6 (963.2-1,908.4); n = 5c 1,225.4 (867.6-1,834.0); n = 4 884.8 (506.1-1,013.5); n = 5 408.0 (319.8-648.7); n = 5c
  HVA/5-HIAA 0.3 (0.2-0.6); n = 5c 0.4 (0.2-0.5); n = 4 0.2 (0.2-0.4); n = 5 0.1 (0.08-0.2); n = 5c
  1. Median (IQR); Kruskal-Wallis analyses (P <0.05) with post-hoc Mann-Whitney U tests were performed; only data remaining statistically significant following Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (P <0.00833; one superscript letter) are presented above; the following letters are used: aAD + D + P vs. DLB + D + P, bAD + D-P vs. DLB + D-P, cAD + D + P vs. DLB + D-P and dAD + D-P vs. DLB + D + P.
  2. 5-HIAA, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid; 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin); AD + D + P/-P, psychotic/nonpsychotic Alzheimer’s disease patients (within the depressed AD group); BA, Brodmann area; DA, dopamine; DLB + D + P/-P, psychotic/nonpsychotic dementia with Lewy bodies patients (within the depressed DLB group); HVA, homovanillic acid; MA and MT, monoamines and metabolites; MHPG, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol.