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Table 2 Focus depression: comparison of the brain monoamine levels between AD + D, AD-D, DLB + D and CONTR

From: The monoaminergic footprint of depression and psychosis in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to Alzheimer’s disease

Brain region MA and MT or ratio AD + D (number = 10) AD-D (number = 10) DLB + D (number = 10) CONTR (number = 10)
BA9 MHPG (ng/g) 412.4 (314.3-704.8); n = 9 1,092.3 (499.2-1,734.5); n = 10b 284.3 (155.8-547.0); n = 10b 478.7 (409.2-758.3); n = 10
  5-HT (ng/g) 9.8 (5.3-16.9); n = 9a 12.6 (7.7-14.4); n = 10e, bbb 3.4 (2.5-4.2); n = 10a, bbb 4.2 (1.3-11.0); n = 10e
BA10 MHPG (ng/g) 684.2 (312.1-1,080.1); n = 10 663.9 (432.5-940.3); n = 10b 297.7 (143.5-460.4); n = 10b 289.9 (177.3-498.1); n = 10
  5-HIAA (ng/g) 239.2 (156.9-367.3); n = 10a 178.5 (124.3-310.5); n = 10 82.1 (58.9-125.8); n = 10a 128.7 (85.8-157.0); n = 10
  HVA (ng/g) 116.6 (89.2-132.0); n = 10a 82.8 (63.2-98.0); n = 10 57.3 (41.9-66.3); n = 10a 102.6 (66.1-138.7); n = 10
  5-HT (ng/g) 16.0 (11.8-34.4); n = 10aaa 13.4 (12.7-15.4); n = 10bbb 4.3 (2.4-5.8); n = 10aaa, bbb, f 12.4 (8.6-18.3); n = 10f
BA24 5-HIAA (ng/g) 394.5 (300.9-565.8); n = 10a 378.2 (360.6-508.6); n = 10b 229.5 (194.6-335.2); n = 10a, b 301.2 (192.1-499.8); n = 10
  HVA (ng/g) 214.5 (180.5-263.2); n = 10a 202.1 (144.0-224.2); n = 10 131.21 (100.5-183.1); n = 10a 210.6 (179.8-263.6); n = 10
  5-HT (ng/g) 39.4 (32.0-54.1); n = 10aa 44.4 (34.7-52.9); n = 10bb 21.6 (8.4-23.5); n = 10aa, bb 42.6 (22.0-53.0); n = 10
amygdala MHPG (ng/g) 1,100.5 (634.4-1,568.7); n = 9a 592.2 (209.1-1,050.7); n = 8 430.1 (137.3-644.2); n = 10a 347.9 (241.9-588.1); n = 10
  NA (ng/g) 67.4 (54.7-395.9); n = 8 76.2 (61.0-127.9); n = 8b 36.2 (26.6-48.9); n = 10b 60.2 (46.4-81.5); n = 10
hippocampus 5-HIAA (ng/g) 383.2 (260.5-689.9); n = 10 385.0 (348.7-954.9); n = 9b 271.9 (239.1-331.6); n = 10b 284.4 (242.9-349.3); n = 10
  DA (ng/g) 9.0 (5.2-120.8); n = 9a 5.9 (4.7-16.7); n = 9 3.8 (2.4-5.3); n = 10a 8.9 (6.5-23.7); n = 10
  HVA (ng/g) 224.5 (157.6-269.6); n = 10 206.5 (132.0-249.9); n = 9 133.0 (108.7-168.0); n = 10f 236.1 (193.3-333.1); n = 10f
  5-HIAA/5-HT 8.2 (5.5-9.6); n = 10a 6.2 (4.2-13.8); n = 9 3.8 (2.8-5.2); n = 10a 4.4 (3.4-5.9); n = 10
  DOPAC/DA 0.4 (0.1-1.7); n = 9a 1.5 (0.5-2.3); n = 9 3.0 (1.6-3.7); n = 10a, ff 0.7 (0.4-1.2); n = 10ff
thalamus MHPG (ng/g) 1,273.7 (776.8-1,740.1); n = 10aa 686.2 (521.1-1,585.9); n = 10 248.5 (174.0-568.9); n = 10aa 494.4 (315.2-1,125.7); n = 10
  NA (ng/g) 140.5 (111.1-164.6); n = 8a 183.9 (146.7-261.6); n = 10b 47.0 (25.0-76.6); n = 10a, b, ff 162.9 (91.6-213.7); n = 10ff
  DA (ng/g) 14.0 (8.6-31.6); n = 10aaa 13.1 (9.3-28.5); n = 10bb 1.4 (1.0-5.3); n = 10aaa, bb, fff 19.7 (8.7-31.8); n = 10fff
  DOPAC/DA 1.0 (0.5-1.3); n = 10a 1.0 (0.5-1.6); n = 10b 3.7 (1.9-11.3); n = 10a, b, ff 0.9 (0.5-1.1); n = 10ff
  HVA/DA 31.0 (20.7-42.2); n = 10a 29.2 (14.8-70.0); n = 10b 225.5 (55.8-361.9); n = 10a, b, f 29.2 (23.1-44.3); n = 10f
BA11 5-HIAA (ng/g) 238.6 (165.2-464.6); n = 9 293.9 (176.1-424.6); n = 10b 83.9 (65.9-132.3); n = 10b, f 222.3 (161.4-353.6); n = 10f
  HVA (ng/g) 146.1 (92.7-165.2); n = 9a 132.9 (84.3-182.5); n = 10b 62.5 (43.4-83.7); n = 10a, b, f 118.9 (91.7-166.1); n = 10f
  5-HT (ng/g) 11.8 (6.8-20.2); n = 9 17.3 (10.5-36.7); n = 10bb 5.9 (3.7-8.2); n = 10bb 9.0 (5.6-14.5); n = 10
  MHPG/NA 81.7 (37.6-111.1); n = 6a 47.1 (21.3-64.3); n = 10 21.5 (10.2-31.5); n = 10a 42.7 (33.1-69.9); n = 10
BA22 MHPG (ng/g) 779.9 (546.3-1,177.4); n = 10aa 810.3 (308.6-1,492.7); n = 10 296.0 (171.6-521.2); n = 10aa 609.6 (419.2-1,591.4); n = 10
  5-HIAA (ng/g) 472.3 (293.2-793.5); n = 10aaa 311.3 (166.6-958.3); n = 10b 64.4 (46.5-133.3); n = 10aaa, b, f 255.2 (127.0-473.0); n = 10f
  HVA (ng/g) 138.4 (125.5-207.8); n = 10a 116.8 (91.4-148.4); n = 10b 61.0 (47.1-89.0); n = 10a, b, f 141.7 (86.0-240.0); n = 10f
  MHPG/NA 83.5 (23.6-92.1); n = 7 46.5 (29.1-137.8); n = 9b 17.9 (9.0-29.5); n = 10b 33.9 (22.1-79.3); n = 10
BA17 5-HIAA (ng/g) 143.6 (98.1-191.0); n = 9aa 117.8 (92.1-187.9); n = 10b 47.8 (32.6-69.5); n = 10aa, b, ff 147.9 (118.4-198.0); n = 10ff
  DA (ng/g) 12.2 (7.1-17.9); n = 9d, c 2.7 (1.5-3.8); n = 10 c 4.3 (2.6-7.1); n = 10 3.5 (1.6-4.8); n = 10d
  5-HT (ng/g) 13.7 (6.5-24.1); n = 9a 12.7 (3.4-24.4); n = 10 2.6 (2.2-5.7); n = 10a, f 8.8 (5.5-20.3); n = 10f
Cerebellum 5-HIAA (ng/g) 244.3 (103.4-538.2); n = 9a 276.3 (117.6-465.3); n = 9b 57.3 (38.4-81.8); n = 10a, b, f 181.9 (103.3-333.6); n = 10f
  DA (ng/g) 5.6 (2.4-7.1); n = 9a 3.0 (2.0-17.9); n = 9 2.3 (0.5-2.6); n = 10a 3.4 (2.2-4.7); n = 10
  HVA (ng/g) 105.4 (51.1-137.6); n = 9a 64.5 (55.9-94.9); n = 9b 35.3 (22.9-59.5); n = 10a, b 94.5 (43.1-149.2); n = 10
  DOPAC/DA 2.3 (1.0-5.8); n = 9 1.7 (0.3-3.9); n = 9b 6.7 (3.7-13.9); n = 10b 1.4 (0.7-6.0); n = 9
Locus coeruleus DOPAC (ng/g) 55.5 (32.8-102.6); n = 9a 41.5 (28.1-101.6); n = 9 19.3 (12.7-28.1); n = 10a, ff 78.8 (47.1-130.3); n = 10ff
  DA (ng/g) 41.0 (25.9-102.9); n = 9a 34.5 (20.0-49.4); n = 9 15.8 (7.0-25.0); n = 10a, f 37.1 (30.1-55.7); n = 10f
  HVA (ng/g) 1,361.6 (963.2-1,904.9); n = 9a 1,082.7 (834.7-1,634.6); n = 9b 540.2 (378.5-887.8); n = 10a, b, fff 1,603.2 (1,284.7-1,964.1); n = 10fff
  HVA/5-HIAA 0.4 (0.2-0.5); n = 9 0.2 (0.2-0.3); n = 9 0.2 (0.1-0.2); n = 10f 0.4 (0.3-0.5); n = 10f
  MHPG/NA 1.1 (0.9-2.6); n = 9 1.5 (1.3-2.0); n = 9b 3.9 (2.1-4.8); n = 10b 0.8 (0.5-2.4); n = 10
  1. Median (IQR); Kruskal-Wallis analyses (P <0.05) with post-hoc Mann–Whitney U tests were performed; only data remaining statistically significant following Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (P <0.00833; one superscript letter) are presented above; significant differences with P <0.001 and P <0.0001 are respectively indicated with two and three repeated superscript letters; the following letters are used: aAD + D vs. DLB + D, bAD-D vs. DLB + D, cAD + D vs. AD-D, dAD + D vs. CONTR, eAD-D vs. CONTR and fDLB + D vs. CONTR.
  2. 5-HIAA, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid; 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin); AD + D/-D, depressed/nondepressed Alzheimer’s disease patients; BA, Brodmann area; CONTR, control subjects; DA, dopamine; DLB + D, depressed dementia with Lewy bodies patients; DOPAC, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid; HVA, homovanillic acid; MA and MT, monoamines and metabolites; MHPG, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol; NA, noradrenaline.