C-statistics (areas under the curve) of the indices in the prediction of death (left panel) and dementia (right panel) as a function of the number of deficits considered in the indices, in men (green) and in women (red). Symbols represent the observational data, and lines represent the curve fitting to a reversed exponential function (R2 > 0.960; P < 0.001). Data were obtained by using randomly selected variables with 1,000 simulations. Solid symbols on the left show the performance with use of each individual deficit (traditional risk factors, stars; nontraditional, asterisks; others, dots). Performance of the nontraditional, traditional, and all risk-factor indices are shown by the larger down-triangles, up-triangles, and diamond symbols.