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Table 3 Study characteristics and main findings of included studies

From: A systematic review of cognitive decline in dementia with Lewy bodies versus Alzheimer’s disease

Study Sample, male/female ratio (m/f), mean age (SD) Follow-up period Neuropsychological tests AD versus DLB comparison Test scores, mean (SD)
McKeith et al ., 1992 [[20]] AD 37 Baseline and late stage MTS No significant difference MTS baseline
m/f 13/24 AD 15.9 (1.8)
y 74.7 (0.9) SDLT 24.5 (1.7)
SDLT 21 MTS late stage
m/f 12/9 AD 9.3 (2.1)
y 73.3 (1.6) SDLT 18.2 (2.3)
Ballard et al ., 1996 [[17]] AD 53 1 y CAMCOG SDLT faster decline of verbal fluency Scores for subtests n/a
m/f, n/a     
Y, n/a CAMCOG total, baseline
SDLT 7 AD 42.7 (17.9)
  SDLT 47.7 (18.0)
m/f, n/a CAMCOG mean annual decline
Y, n/a
VaD 14 AD 13.2 (12.6)
m/f, n/a SDLT 27.0 (19.8)
Y, n/a
Ballard et al ., 1998 [[21]] AD 30 1 y MMSE No significant difference MMSE baseline
m/f 9/21 AD 13.9
DLB 14.9
y 81.7 MMSE mean annual decline
DLB 42
AD 4.1
m/f 19/24 DLB 3.9
y 73.6
Olichney et al ., 1998 [[3]] AD 148 Mean 3 y MMSE LBV faster decline MMSE baseline
m/f 80/68
y 74.0 (7.9) AD 17.8 (6.0)
LBV 40 LBV 18.2 (5.5)
m/f 25/15 MMSE 1 y (n = 136/35)
y 72.4 (6.5)
AD 14.3 (7.2)
LBV 12.5 (7.5)
MMSE 2 y (n = 93/17)
AD 12.3 (7.9)
LBV 8.1 (6.3)
MMSE 3 y (n = 59/12)
AD 10.1 (8.4)
LBV 4.5 (6.5)
MMSE 4 y (n = 35/4)
AD 9.1 (7.9)
LBV 2.5 (3.0)
MMSE mean annual decline
AD 4.1 (3.0)
LBV 5.8 (4.5)
Heyman et al ., 1999 [[18]] AD 74 Annual controls CERAD (including CDT, calculation test, serial subtraction, CDR, BNT, MMSE, 10-item word list memory, recall and recognition, constructional praxis, two of the six items of the orientation-memory-concentration test) AD faster decline in delayed recall 32% of LBV versus 15% of AD remembered any item on word list recall at last evaluation
m/f 47/27
y 41% >74 y
AD/LBV 27
m/f 14/13
y 37% >74 y
Lopez et al ., 2000 [[22]] AD 98 Mean 59 months MMSE No significant difference MMSE baseline
m/f 50/48
y 70.8 (9.4) AD 16.0 (6.5)
AD/DLB 44 AD/DLB 16.2 (5.1)
m/f 20/24
y 72.3 (6.0)
Stern et al ., 2001 [[23]] AD 32 Annual controls, longest 9.9 y mMMSE (including WAIS-R digit span forward, backward, attention, calculation, general knowledge, language, construction), CDR No significant difference mMMSE baseline
m/f 16/16 AD 36.7 (6.3)
y 73.0 (9.0) LBV 37.3 (6.2)
LBV 19 mMMSE mean annual decline 3.6 (both groups)
m/f 17/2
y 73.6 (6.8)
Ballard et al ., 2001 [[24]] AD 101 1y MMSE, CAMCOG No significant difference MMSE n = 203
m/f 30/71 MMSE baseline
probable AD 61 m/f 17/44 prob AD 17.7 (5.1)
poss AD 17.2 (5.2)
y 81.9 (4.8)
DLB 15.6 (7.0)
possible AD 40
MMSE mean annual decline
m/f 13/27
y 79.0 (7.8) AD 4.9 (3.6)
DLB 64 DLB 4.3 (4.2)
m/f 26/38 CAMCOG n = 154
Baseline 57.5 (18.8)
y 76.6 (7.7)
VaD 38 CAMCOG mean annual decline
m/f 22/16
y 76.8 (7.7) Probable AD 15.0 (10.1)
Possible AD 14.4 (9.8)
DLB 11.9 (12.2)
Helmes et al ., 2003 [[25]] AD 15 50 months ESD No significant difference Scores n/a
m/f 9/6
y 70.3 (7.6)
AD/DLB 8
m/f 5/3
y 69.3 (11.2)
DLB 7
m/f 5/2
y 69.1 (4.1)
Johnson et al ., 2005 [[26]] AD 66 Annual controls, WMS (digits forward, backward, logical memory and associate learning), BVRT, word fluency, BNT, WAIS (Digit Symbol and Block Design), TMT A, Crossing Off, CDR No significant difference Follow-up scores n/a. For baseline scores for all tests see article
m/f 39/27 1 to 20 assessments
y 77.0 (8.1)
AD/DLB 57
m/f 31/26
y 75.2 (9.7)
DLB 9
m/f 8/1, age 72.6 (5.7)
Kraybill et al ., 2005 [[15]] AD 48 Annual controls MMSE, DRS AD/LBP faster decline than AD and LBP MMSE baseline
  m/f 18/30     AD 20.6 (3.9)
y at onset 77.5 AD/LBP 20.7 (3.7)
(7.34) LBP 20.7 (3.8)
AD/LBP 65 MMSE mean annual decline
m/f 24/41 AD 3.5 (0.4)
y at onset 74.8 (6.6) AD/LBP 5.0 (0.5)
LBP 3.4 (0.7)
LBP 22 DRS baseline
m/f 16/6 AD 114.7 (2.1)
y at onset 76.5 (5.3) AD/LBP 114.2 (1.8)
LBP 114.2 (2.7)
DRS mean annual decline
AD 9.6 (1.5)
AD/LBP 15.3 (1.9)
LBP 8.8 (1.7)
Stavitsky et al ., 2006 [[19]] AD 55 Mean 3 y mMMSE (incl WAIS-R digit Span forward, backward, attention, calculation, general knowledge, language, construction), HVLT-R AD faster decline on recognition. mMMSE baseline
m/f 21/34 AD 39.0 (7.6)
DLB 38.1 (8.3)
y 73.1 (8.3) HVLT-R n/a
DLB 28
m/f 19/9
y 73.5 (7.6)
Williams et al ., 2006 [[27]] AD 252 < 5 y MMSE, CDR, WMS (mental control, logical memory, digit span forward and backward, associate learning), BVRT, WAIS (information, digit symbol, block design), word fluency, BNT, Crossing off, TMT A No significant difference. Scores n/a
m/f 95/157
y 77.8 (9.5)
DLB 63
m/f 38/25
y 73.5 (8.7)
Hamilton et al ., 2008 [[28]] AD 44 2 y DRS, WISC-R (block design), CDT copy, BNT Poor baseline visuospatial skills (block design <20, CDT copy <3) were strongly associated with faster decline in DLB, but not AD. DRS baseline
m/f 20/24 AD 114.4 (15.4)
y 72.0 (5.6) DLB 109.5 (11.4)
DLB 22 DRS 1 y mean decline
m/f 14/8
y 73.4 (6.2) AD 7.9 (11.6)
DLB 17 (24.2)
DRS 2 y mean decline
AD 23.9 (24.7)
DLB 39.3 (35.1)
Other scores n/a
Hanyu et al ., 2009 [[29]] AD 111 5 y MMSE No significant difference MMSE
m/f 37/74 Baseline n = 111/56
y 77.5 (6.2) AD 20.3 (3.7)
DLB 56 DLB 20.7 (3.8)
m/f 30/26 1 y n = 111/56
y 78.1 (5.2) AD 19.4 (4.8)
DLB 20.5 (4.2)
2 y n = 102/40
AD 17.7 (5.2)
DLB 18.0 (4.8)
3 y n = 72/25
AD 16.2 (5.0)
DLB 17.0 (5.3)
4 y n = 51/19
AD 14.2 (4.5)
DLB 13.4 (4.0)
5 y n = 16/5
AD 11.4 (5.2)
DLB 10.6 (4.0)
Nelson et al ., 2009 [[16]] AD 107 Mean 4 y MMSE AD/DLB had a faster decline than DLB and AD. MMSE baseline n/a
m/f n/a MMSE final
y n/a AD 10.7 (8.6)
AD/DLB 27 AD/DLB 10.6 (8.6)
m/f n/a DLB 15.6 (8.7)
y n/a
DLB 9
m/f n/a
y n/a
Wood et al ., 2012[30] AD 16 1 y MMSE, CAMCOG, NEVIP No significant difference. MMSE baseline
m/f 12/4 AD 21.3 (3.2)
y 78.9 (6.1) DLB 24.5 (3.3)
DLB 10 MMSE decline from baseline
m/f 9/1
y 78.2 (7.4). AD 2.1 (3.6)
Controls 28 DLB 1.8 (3.1)
m/f 16/12 CAMCOG baseline
y 79.5 AD 71.4 (9.7)
DLB 79.1 (12.0)
CAMCOG decline from baseline
AD 7.4 (10.7)
DLB 4.3 (7.3)
Walker et al ., 2012[31] AD 100 1 y MMSE, CAMCOG-R, VOSP, CDR No significant difference. MMSE baseline
m/f 48/52 AD 21.5 (4.5)
y 74,9 DLB 21.4 (3.9)
DLB 58 MMSE follow up (n = 81/33)
m/f 37/21 AD 19.0 (6.2)
y 74,2
DLB 18.5 (6.0)
CAMCOG-R baseline
AD 66.3 (15.6)
DLB 66.0 (13.5)
CAMCOG-R follow up
(n = 81/33)
AD 59.6 (20.3)
DLB 56.3 (19.7)
  1. AD, Alzheimer’s disease; DLB, dementia with Lewy bodies; LBP, Lewy body pathology; LBV, Lewy body variant; n/a, not available; SDLT, senile dementia of Lewy body type; VaD, vascular dementia; y, years; BNT, Boston naming test; BVRT, Benton visual retention test; CAMCOG, Cambridge cognitive examination; CAMCOG-R, Cambridge cognitive examination-revised; CDR, clinical dementia rating; CDT, clock drawing test; CERAD, Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease evaluation; DRS, dementia rating scale; ESD, extended scale for dementia; HVLT-R, Hopkins verbal learning test-revised; MMSE, mini mental state examination; mMMS, modified mini-mental state examination; MTS, 37-item mental test score; NEVIP, Newcastle visual perception battery; TMT A, trail making test A; VOSP, visual object and space perception battery; WAIS, Wechsler adult intelligence scale; WISC-R, Wechsler intelligence scale for children-revised; WMS, Wechsler memory scale.