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Table 6 Aggregate vascular risk for incident dementia

From: Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease: are these risk factors for plaques and tangles or for concomitant vascular pathology that increases the likelihood of dementia? An evidence-based review

Grade Study Age (years) Mean follow-up (years) Definition Number of risk factors Aggregate risk (95% CI)
       All dementia VaD AD + VaD AD
B1 Kalmijn et al. 2000 [36]; HAAS 52.7 ± 4.7 27 Random postload glucose, SBP, DBP, BMI, subscapular skinfold thickness, total cholesterol, and triglycerides Per 1-unit increase in z-score 1.06 (1.02, 1.10)a 1.11 (1.05, 1.18)a 1.06 (0.97, 1.15)a 1.0 (0.94, 1.06)a
       1.04 (1.00, 1.08)b 1.09 (1.01, 1.15)b 1.04 (0.96, 1.14)b 1.00 (0.94, 1.05)b
       1.05 (1.01, 1.09)c 1.10 (1.04, 1.17)c 1.03 (0.94, 1.13)c 1.00 (0.95, 1.06)c
       1.03 (0.99, 1.07)d 1.08 (1.01, 1.15)d 1.03 (0.94, 1.13)d 0.99 (0.94, 1.06)d
B1 Luchsinger et al. 2005 [24]; WHICAP 76.2 ± 5.9 5.5 Self-report history of diabetes, or hypertension, or heart disease, or current smoking 1     1.7 (1.1, 2.6)e
      2     2.5 (1.6, 3.9)e
      ≥3     3.4 (2.1, 5.7)e
B1 Qiu et al. 2010 [2]; Kungsholmen 81.5 ± 5.0 5.1 Vascular risk profile: SBP ≥160, DBP <70, pulse pressure <70, diabetes, stroke, heart failure 1 1.11 (0.79, 1.58)f    1.09 (0.75, 1.60)f
      2 1.65 (1.12, 2.42)f    1.77 (1.16, 2.71)f
      ≥3 2.48 (1.46, 4.20)f    2.66 (1.39, 5.08)f
     Atherosclerosis risk profile: SBP ≥160, diabetes, stroke 1 1.28 (1.00, 1.64)f    1.33 (1.00, 1.78)f
      ≥2 2.13 (1.46, 3.11)f    2.09 (1.31, 3.34)f
     Hypoperfusion risk profile: DBP <70, pulse pressure <70, heart failure 1 1.15 (0.90, 1.47)f    1.27 (0.96, 1.69)f
      ≥2 1.88 (1.30, 2.70)f    2.06 (1.31, 3.34)f
B2 Ronnemaa et al. 2011 [3]; Uppsala 49.6 ± 0.6 29 SBP >140 mmHg, BMI >28, fasting glucose >7 mmol/L, cholesterol >7mmol/L, current smoking 1 1.4 (1.0, 1.9)g 2.1 (0.9, 4.6)g 1.3 (0.9, 1.9)g 0.9 (0.6, 1.5)g
      2 1.7 (1.2, 2.3)g 2.8 (1.3, 6.2)g 1.5 (1.0, 2.2)g 1.2 (0.8, 2.0)g
      ≥3 2.1 (1.5, 3.2)g 5.1 (2.2, 11.9)g 1.4 (0.9, 1.4)g 0.5 (0.2, 1.2)g
   71.0 ± 0.6 13 SBP >140 mmHg, BMI >28, fasting glucose >7mmol/L, cholesterol >7mmol/L, current smoking 1 1.8 (1.2, 2.6)g 4.1 (1.0, 17.7)g 1.6 (1.1, 2.5)g 1.3 (0.8, 2.3)g
      2 1.7 (1.1, 2.6)g 6.8 (1.6, 29.2)g 1.4 (0.9, 2.2)g 1.0 (0.6, 1.9)g
      ≥3 1.7 (1.0, 2.9)g 7.7 (1.6, 37.1)g 1.1 (0.5, 2.1)g 0.4 (0.1, 1.3)g
  1. aAdjusted for age and education. bAdjusted for age, education, and history of stroke. cAdjusted for age, education, and coronary heart disease. dAdjusted for age, education, and adult brachial index. eAdjusted for age, gender, education, APOE ε4 status, and ethnicity. fAdjusted for age, gender, education, APOE ε4 status, follow-up survival status, baseline Mini-Mental State Examination, body mass index, coronary heart disease, and use of blood pressure lowering drugs and, if applicable, for atherosclerosis profile and hypoperfusion profile. gAdjusted for age and education. AD, Alzheimer's disease; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HAAS, Honolulu Asia Aging Study; SBP, systolic blood pressure; VaD, vascular dementia; WHICAP, Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project.