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Table 4 Hypertension and relative risk of incident dementia

From: Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease: are these risk factors for plaques and tangles or for concomitant vascular pathology that increases the likelihood of dementia? An evidence-based review

   Age (mean ± SD) Mean follow-up (years)   Number of subjects RR (95% CI)
Grade Study    Definition HTN NL All dementia VaD AD + VaD AD
B1 Yoshitake et al. 1995 [11]; Hisayama (n = 828) 73.6 ± 5.9a 7 Per 1 SD increase (23 mmHg)     1.6 (1.2, 2.2) b   1.0 (0.7, 1.4)b
B1 Launer et al. 2000 [27]; HAAS (n = 3,734) 52.7 ± 4.7 (men) 27 Untreated SBP ≥160 227 2,295 4.85 (1.99, 11.83) c 10.68 (3.49, 32.64) c 1.75 (0.58, 5.29)c -
     Untreated DBP ≥90 132 1,128 4.32 (1.72, 10.85) c 4.61 (1.61, 13.19) c 2.78 (0.54, 14.25)c 6.6 (2.0, 21.4) c
B1 Kivipelto et al. 2002 [35] (n = 2,293) 50.2 ± 6.0 21 SBP 140-159 - - 1.9 (0.8, 4.8)d    1.6 (0.7, 4.2)d
     SBP = 160 - - 2.8 (1.1, 7.2) d    2.6 (1.1, 7.2) d
     DBP 90-94 - - 1.4 (0.5, 3.6)d    1.2 (0.4, 3.3)d
     DBP ≥ 90 - - 2.3 (1.1, 5.1) d    2.0 (0.9, 4.6)d
B1 Qiu et al. 2010 [2]; Kungsholmen (n = 1,270) 81.5 ± 5.0 5.1 SBP 140-159 127 278 1.22 (0.89, 1.68)e    1.47 (1.02, 2.12) e
     SBP ≥ 160 127 351 1.49 (0.94, 2.37)e    1.84 (1.06, 3.18) e
B1 Rönnemaa et al. 2011 [3]; Uppsala (n = 2,268) 49.6 ± 0.6 29 Per 1 SD increase (18 mmHg)    1.2 (1.0, 1.3) f 1.3 (1.1, 1.6) f 1.1 (1.0, 1.2) f 1.0 (0.8, 1.2)f
   71.0 ± 0.6 13 Per 1 SD increase (19 mmHg)    1.2 (1.0, 1.3) f 1.6 (1.2, 2.1) f 1.1 (1.0, 1.3) f 1.0 (0.8, 1.2)f
B2 Shah et al. 2006 [28]; ROS (n = 824) 75 ± 7 6.0 Per 1 mmHg increase in SBP       0.995 (0.986, 1.004)g
     Per 1 mmHg increase in SBP       1.000 (0.985, 1.015)g
  1. aSample mean age and pooled standard deviation (SD) calculated based on mean age ± SD of the male and female groups provided in the paper. bAdjusted for age. cAdjusted for age, education, APOE ε4 status, smoking and alcohol consumption. dAdjusted for age, APOE ε4 status, education, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption. eAdjusted for age, gender, education, APOE ε4 status, follow-up survival status, baseline Mini-Mental State Examination, body mass index, coronary heart disease, and use of blood pressure lowering drugs. fAdjusted for age and education. gAdjusted for age, gender, and education. Entries in bold indicate significant relative risk (RR) ratios. AD, Alzheimer's disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HAAS, Honolulu Asia Aging Study; HTN, hypertension; NL, normal; ROS, Religious Orders Study; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SD, standard deviation; VaD, vascular dementia.