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Table 3 Diabetes and relative risk of incident dementia

From: Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease: are these risk factors for plaques and tangles or for concomitant vascular pathology that increases the likelihood of dementia? An evidence-based review

      Number of subjects RR (95% CI)
Grade Study Age (years) Follow-up (years) Definition DM No DM All dementia VaD AD + VaD AD
B1 Yoshitake et al. 1995 [11]; Hisayama 1985 to 1992 (n = 828) >65 7 Hx 70 756   2.8 (2.6, 3.0) a   2.2 (0.97, 4.9)a
B1 Ott et al. 1999 [23]; Rotterdam 1990 to 1994 (n = 6,370) >55 2.1 Hx: Glu >11 mmol/L 692 5,678 1.9 (1.3, 2.8)b 2.0 (0.7, 5.6)b 3.0 (1.0, 9.3) b 1.8 (1.1, 3.0) b
B1 Luchsinger et al. 2001 [49]; WHICAP 1992 to 1997 (n = 1,262) ≥65, mean 75.6 (SD 5.9) 4.3 Hx 255 1,007   3.4 (1.7, 6.9) c   1.3 (0.8, 1.9)d
B1 MacKnight et al. 2002 [26]; CSHA (n = 5,574) ≥65 4-6 Hx: Glu >11.1 mmol/L 503 5,071 1.26 (0.9, 1.7)e 2.03 (1.15, 3.5) e   1.3 (0.83, 2.1)e
B1 Peila et al. 2002 [15]; HAAS 1991 to 1996 (n = 2,574) 72-93 2.9 Hx DM: FBS >120 mg/dl 900 1,674 1.5 (1.0, 2.2)f 2.3 (1.1, 5.0) f 1.8 (1.1, 2.9) f 1.6 (0.9, 3.0)f
B1 Cheng et al. 2011 [25]; WHICAP 1999 to 2001 (n = 1,488) >65   Hx    1.7 (1.4, 2.90)g 1.6 (1.0, 2.6) g 1.3 (0.8, 2.2)g  
B2 Arvanitakis et al. 2004 [17]; Religious Orders Study (n = 990) 75 5.5 Hx 127 697     1.6 (1.1, 2.5) h
B2 Ahtilouoto et al. 2010 [16]; Vantaa 85+ (n = 588) >85   Hx 87 268 2.09 (1.34, 3.25) No APOE4: 1.68 (0.99, 2.83) With APOE4: 3.80 (1.69, 8.53)    
  1. aAdjusted for age. bAdjusted for age and sex. cAdjusted for gender, history of hypertension, history of heart disease, low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, ethnic group, education, and smoking. dAdjusted for gender, ethnic group, education, and presence of the APOE ε4 allele. eAdjusted for demographics and vascular disease. fAdjusted for age, education, APOE ε4 status, diabetes medications, alcohol, smoking status, midlife systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, ankle brachial index, stroke, and coronary heart disease. gAdjusted for age, sex, education, ethnic group and APOE ε4. hAdjusted for age, sex, and education. Entries in bold indicate significant RR ratios. AD, Alzheimer's disease; APOE, apolipoprotein E; CI, confidence interval; CSHA, Canadian Study of Health and Aging; DM, diabetes mellitus; FBS, fasting blood sugar; Hx, history; OR, odds ratio; RR, relative risk; SD, standard deviation; VaD, vascular dementia; WHICAP, Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project.