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Table 1 Pathological and functional biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease

From: Molecular imaging in Alzheimer's disease: new perspectives on biomarkers for early diagnosis and drug development

Pathological Alzheimer's disease biomarkers
Positron emission tomography
   Fibrillar amyloid beta (11C-Pittsburgh Compound B, 18F-flutemetamol, 18F-florbetapir, and 18F-florbetaben)
   Tau (18F-FDDNP)
   Microglia (11C-PK11195, 11C-DA1106)
   Astrocytes (11C-D-deprenyl)
Magnetic resonance imaging (atrophy, hippocampal volume, cortical thickness) Cerebrospinal fluid (amyloid beta 1-42, tau, p-tau)
Functional Alzheimer's disease biomarkers
Positron emission tomography
   Cerebral glucose metabolism (18F-FDG)
   Neurotransmitter activity (for example, 11C-CFT, 11C-PMP)
   Neuroreceptors (for example, 11C-raclopride, 18F-alanserine, 11C-nicotine)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging, spectroscopy
Single-photon emission computed tomography (cerebral blood flow)