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Table 5 Cohen's d effect size estimates for significant predictors in final mixed models

From: Predictors of long-term cognitive outcome in Alzheimer's disease

  MMSE ADAS-coga
Time in months from start of ChEI treatment   6 12 36   6 12 36
Pairs of groups         
Males vs femalesb   0.19 0.19 0.19 ADAS-cog score 40 0.77 0.77 0.77
      30 0.50 0.50 0.50
      20 0.23 0.23 0.23
Age, 85 vs 65 yearsb MMSE score 15 1.07 1.07 1.07 ADAS-cog score 40 1.55 1.55 1.55
  20 0.24 0.24 0.24 30 0.95 0.95 0.95
  25 -0.58 -0.58 -0.58 20 0.36 0.36 0.36
Age, 85 vs 75 yearsb MMSE score 15 0.53 0.53 0.53 ADAS-cog score 40 0.78 0.78 0.78
  20 0.12 0.12 0.12 30 0.48 0.48 0.48
  25 -0.29 -0.29 -0.29 20 0.18 0.18 0.18
Age, 75 vs 65 yearsb MMSE score 15 0.53 0.53 0.53 ADAS-cog score 40 0.78 0.78 0.78
  20 0.12 0.12 0.12 30 0.48 0.48 0.48
  25 -0.29 -0.29 -0.29 20 0.18 0.18 0.18
Education, 9 vs 15 years   -0.03 0.20 1.10   -0.06 0.10 0.75
Education, 12 vs 15 years   -0.01 0.10 0.55   -0.03 0.05 0.38
Education, 9 vs 12 years   -0.01 0.10 0.55   -0.03 0.05 0.38
APOE ε4, non-carrier vs carrier   ns ns ns   0.27 0.27 0.27
NSAIDs/Acetylsalicylic acid therapy, yes vs no   0.22 0.22 0.22   0.25 0.25 0.25
ChEI-dose, 100% vs 50%c   0.24 0.24 0.24   0.50 0.50 0.50
  1. a To facilitate comparisons of effect sizes, the plus/minus sign is reversed for ADAS-cog.
  2. bDue to the interaction effects ADAS-cog baseline score × Gender, MMSE baseline score × Age and ADAS-cog baseline score × Age, effect sizes are presented for MMSE scores of 15, 20 and 25 and for ADAS-cog scores of 20, 30 and 40, which are used as arbitrary examples.
  3. cMean percentage of the maximum recommended dose, that is, 10 mg donepezil, 12 mg rivastigmine and 24 mg galantamine.
  4. Abbreviations: ADAS-cog, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale; APOE, Apolipoprotein E; ChEI, Cholinesterase inhibitors; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; NSAID, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; ns, not significant.