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Table 3 Factors affecting the long-term outcome with MMSE or ADAS-cog score as dependent variables

From: Predictors of long-term cognitive outcome in Alzheimer's disease

  MMSE ADAS-cog
Percentage of variance accounted for, all fixed terms 53.7%, P< 0.001 57.8%, P< 0.001
Significant predictors in final mixed models β 95% CI (β) P-value β 95% CI (β) P-value
Fixed terms       
Intercept -25.766 -36.047, -15.484 < 0.001 -8.756 -19.030, 1.518 0.095
Time in months from baseline -0.507 -0.605, -0.409 < 0.001 -0.211 -0.381, -0.040 0.016
MMSE (ADAS-cog) baseline score 2.666 2.074, 3.259 < 0.001 1.604 1.157, 2.051 < 0.001
MMSE (ADAS-cog) baseline score2 -0.018 -0.028, -0.008 < 0.001    ns
Time in months × MMSE (ADAS-cog) baseline score 0.023 0.019, 0.027 < 0.001 0.016 0.011, 0.021 < 0.001
Time in months2 × MMSE (ADAS-cog) baseline score -0.0001 -0.0001, -0.0001 < 0.001 0.0001 0.00004, 0.0002 0.004
Background variables:       
Gender (male = 0, female = 1) -0.395 -0.718, -0.072 0.017 -1.290 -3.262, 0.681 0.199
MMSE (ADAS-cog) baseline score × Gender    ns 0.110 0.020, 0.199 0.016
APOE ε4 carrier (no = 0, yes = 1)    ns 1.072 0.239, 1.906 0.012
NSAIDs/Acetylsalicylic acid (no = 0, yes = 1) 0.440 0.094, 0.785 0.013 -1.037 -1.890, -0.184 0.017
Education, years 0.085 0.017, 0.153 0.014 -0.147 -0.339, 0.044 0.131
Time in months × Education, years -0.013 -0.019, -0.007 < 0.001 0.018 0.003, 0.033 0.016
Age at first assessment, years 0.361 0.237, 0.485 < 0.001 0.168 0.036, 0.300 0.013
MMSE (ADAS-cog) baseline score × Age -0.017 -0.023, -0.011 < 0.001 -0.012 -0.018, -0.006 < 0.001
IADL score at baseline -0.090 -0.124, -0.056 < 0.001 0.256 0.170, 0.343 < 0.001
ChEI-dosea 0.010 0.001, 0.018 0.024 -0.040 -0.062, -0.019 < 0.001
Random terms (variance)       
Intercept 2.613 2.166, 3.153 < 0.001 13.887 10.274, 18.770 < 0.001
Time in months 0.027 0.023, 0.032 < 0.001 0.131 0.108, 0.158 < 0.001
  1. Solitary living, concomitant medications with the exception of NSAIDs/Acetylsalicylic acid, age at onset, basic ADL ability, change of dosage and the variable comparing the ChEI agents were not significant.
  2. β values were unstandardized and are expressed per one unit increase for continuous variables and for the condition present in dichotomous variables.
  3. aMean percentage of the maximum recommended dose, that is, 10 mg donepezil, 12 mg rivastigmine and 24 mg galantamine.
  4. Abbreviations: ADAS-cog, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale; APOE, Apolipoprotein E; ChEI, Cholinesterase inhibitors; CI, Confidence interval; IADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; NSAID, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; ns, not significant.