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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Predictors of long-term cognitive outcome in Alzheimer's disease

  Donepezil Rivastigmine Galantamine Total subjects P- value
Variable N = 456/54% N = 183/22% N = 204/24% N = 843  
Female gender 295/65% 106/58% 133/65% 534/63% 0.229
APOE ε4 carrier, (n = 829) 303/68% 119/66% 143/72% 565/68% 0.456
Solitary living at baseline 173/38%a 40/22%b 72/35%a 285/34% < 0.001
Completion rate after three years 190/42% 85/46% 93/46% 368/44% 0.447
Antihypertensives/Cardiac therapy 177/39% 83/45% 70/35% 330/39% 0.096
Anti-diabetics 16/4%a 8/4%a, b 16/8%b 40/5% 0.048
Lipid-lowering agents 29/6%a 30/16%b 33/16%b 92/11% < 0.001
Estrogens 38/8% 13/7% 8/4% 59/7% 0.124
NSAIDs/Acetylsalicylic acid 127/28% 65/36% 61/30% 253/30% 0.160
Antidepressants 114/25% 42/23% 53/26% 209/25% 0.754
Antipsychotics 26/6%a 4/2%a, b 3/2%b 33/4% 0.015
Anxiolytics/Sedatives/Hypnotics 63/14% 26/14% 24/12% 113/13% 0.750
Variable Mean ± standard deviation (SD) P- value
Estimated age at onset, years 72.6 ± 6.8a 71.6 ± 7.9a, b 70.9 ± 8.4b 71.9 ± 7.4 0.023
Estimated AD duration, years 3.1 ± 2.2 3.1 ± 2.5 2.9 ± 1.6 3.0 ± 2.1 0.380
Age at first assessment, years 75.7 ± 6.4a 74.6 ± 7.5a, b 73.7 ± 8.1b 75.0 ± 7.1 0.004
Education, years 9.3 ± 2.4a 9.0 ± 2.3a 10.0 ± 2.8b 9.4 ± 2.5 < 0.001
MMSE score at baseline 21.2 ± 3.8 21.6 ± 3.8 21.8 ± 3.6 21.4 ± 3.8 0.070
ADAS-cog score (0 to 70) at baseline 21.8 ± 8.8a 19.6 ± 8.9b 18.7 ± 8.7b 20.6 ± 8.9 < 0.001
IADL score at baseline 16.7 ± 5.5a 15.3 ± 5.1b 14.4 ± 5.3b 15.9 ± 5.4 < 0.001
PSMS score at baseline 7.6 ± 2.3a 7.4 ± 1.8a, b 7.1 ± 2.0b 7.4 ± 2.1 0.013
Number of medications at baseline 2.8 ± 2.3 3.0 ± 2.6 2.8 ± 2.5 2.8 ± 2.4 0.448
Mean dose of ChEI during the entire follow-up period, mg/day 7.1 ± 1.8 6.5 ± 2.1 16.1 ± 3.4   
Follow up-visits per subject 5.9 ± 1.8 6.1 ± 1.7 6.1 ± 1.7 6.0 ± 1.8 0.380
  1. a, b Results from post hoc tests (Bonferroni correction) are indicated by superscript letters (two groups with the same letter do not differ significantly within that variable).
  2. Abbreviations: ADAS-cog, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale; APOE, Apolipoprotein E; ChEI, cholinesterase inhibitors; IADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; NSAID, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PSMS, Physical Self-Maintenance Scale.