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Table 2 Cytoplasmic and nuclear protein biomarkers of senescence in Alzheimer's disease

From: Proteinopathy-induced neuronal senescence: a hypothesis for brain failure in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases

Protein Alteration(s) in AD Association with senescence
p53 ↑ in neurons, astrocytes [149, 150] Constitutively active p53 can induce senescence [151, 152]
INK4A (p16) ↑ in neurons with NFT [153, 154] Activated in senescence [155, 156]
Senescence associated-β-galactosidasea Not examined Classic widely accepted biomarker of senescence [92]
Cylcins D, E ↑ in neurons [157] ↑ in endothelial cells and fibroblasts during senescence [158, 159]
  1. aSenescence associated-β-galactosidase is β-galactosidase activity detected at pH 6.0. AD, Alzheimer's disease; NFT, neurofibrillary tangle.