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Table 3 Brief overview of the selected multi-domain AD scales

From: Review of Alzheimer's disease scales: is there a need for a new multi-domain scale for therapy evaluation in medical practice?

Scale Domains/dimensions
(number of items)
Patient population Rating Rater Item scoring Application
(van der Kam et al. 1971)
Caregiver dependency (9), Social skills (7), Aggressiveness (5), Psychoorganic syndrome (11), Depressiveness (3) Moderate to severe AD Observation Nurse, Caregiver 3-point Used in clinical trials for assessment of behavior in psychogeriatric patients; the BGP-care dependency subscale reflects cognitive and functional characteristics related with increased need for care
(Gottfries et al. 1982)
Intellect (11), Emotion (3), Self-care (6), Behavior (6) Mild to severe AD Observation/interview Physician, Psychologist, Nurse 7-point Global assessment tool for evaluating dementia symptoms; it is not suitable for diagnostic purposes but for repeated measurements of patients participating in clinical trials for assessment of drug treatment effects
(Brunner & Spiegel 1990)
Memory (5), IADL (5), Self-care (5), Mood (5), Social behavior (5), Disturbing behavior (5) Mild to moderate
Observation Nurse, Caregiver 5-point Developed for longitudinal studies in psychogeriatrics; used in several European and North American centers; suitable for dementia screening
(Shader et al. 1974)
Cognitive dysfunction (4), Interpersonal relationship (4), Apathy (4), Affect (3), Somatic function (3) Senile dementia Observation/interview Clinician 7-point General-purpose rating scale developed for evaluation of pharmacotherapy in senile dementia; widely used in drug research trials during 1980's
(Porzsolt et al. 2004)
Communication (15), Negative affect (10), Bodily contact (5), Aggression (4), Mobility (6) Severe AD Observation Physician, Nurse 7-point A relatively new developed proxy-rating QoL instrument for documentation of the outcome of geriatric inpatient rehabilitation
  1. AD, Alzheimer's disease; BGP, Behavioral Rating Scale for Geriatric Patients; GBS, Gottfries-Brane-Steen; NOSGER, Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients; SCAG, Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric; VL, the Vienna List